Paul Ryland and Louisa

This post goes from 1730 to 1790 and in Berks County, Pennsylvania.

Here are the Ryland links in the generational chain, at a glance:

PAUL → JohnWilliam Sr. → William Jr. m. (1) Sarah Baird and (2) Hannah Jane VickersFloyd (Frank) Rucker Ryland

The reason there are so few generations is that John married late for the time (26 years old), and William Jr. married a second time after his first wife died, and he had another set of children, in his mature age.

THE BASICS

Paul was born about 1730 in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. He married Louisa, between May and August 1754 in the Schwarzwald Reformed Church in Jacksonwald, Exeter Twp, in Berks County, PA. He died before March 2, 1789, in Cumru Township, Berks County.

His anglicized name is Paul Ryland. He and Louisa had nine children. An administration bond dated March 2, 1789 cites him as deceased. So he probably died in February of that year, but it could be an earlier month. He died intestate (no will), so his wife Louisa and son William were appointed administrators. Then the oldest son and heir-at-law took over. The inventory of his property was taken on March 17, 1789, and the totals were sworn to on March 23, 1789. Louisa and William reported their final account on March 29, 1790. Paul was a prosperous farmer, whose list of assets survives in the inventory (see below). He owned no slaves.

Spelling variations: Paulus, Reyland, Reylandt, Reiley, Ryley, Ryland, Reiland, Reilandt, and Rÿland (umlauts over y)

This is an excellent summary on Paul and his background:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I2710

A little background about spelling variations on names, usually last names. Copyists and clerks, in their old-school handwriting, which is often beautiful, spelled names with variations. One clerk might spell one name differently in the same one document! The clerks back then seemed satisfied with “close enough.” But how do we know it’s the same guy with these spelling variations? Simple. The coherence of many documents, where the first names, usually in combination, appear many times. Examples are probate records, deeds, and censuses. Also, there weren’t a lot of different Rylands stalking Berks and Bedford Counties, PA, in this timeframe

Paul has been approved by the Daughters of the American Revolution, in May 2010. You can read what he did during the Revolutionary War, below.

His Patriot / Ancestor number:

A206879

See below, for the record from the DAR.

Louisa

She was born in a date (so far) unknown, but it was surely close to her husband’s birth year or a little later. She died between May 10 and June 7, 1790, per her probate records.

More about her:

It is a sad fact that we don’t yet know her maiden name. Paul met and married her in Pennsylvania. Her first name is not all that common, so if anyone out there sees an abstract of wills with her first name (Louisa or Lowisa), and probably a German last name, email us. She was bearing children up to about 1773, so she was probably in her teens when she married.

She signed her will on May 10, 1790, and it was proved on June 7, citing her as deceased, so that fixes her date of death in a narrow period. She resided in Cumru Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. She died with a meager estate of personal belongings, after her oldest son (our) John sold the family farm on March 27, 1790, after Paul’s decease. The final account of her estate was finished on March 7, 1793.

Spelling variations: Luissa, Lewisa, Lois

THEIR CHILDREN

Here they are at a glance:

  1. John (1755 to 1814): Our direct line, so see his own post.
  2. Elizabeth Ryland (1756)
  3. Rebecca (1758 to unknown so far)
  4. Sarah (1760 to 1770 or 1778)
  5. James (1762 to 1849)
  6. William (1765 to 1816)
  7. Andrew (1767 to 1823)
  8. Mary (about 1769 to unknown so far)
  9. Rachel (about 1771 to unknown so far)
  10. Henry (about 1773 to 1862)

Now let’s fill in the facts a little, so far as they are available.

Berks Co Townships

  1. John Ryland

Per a Bible record, he was born on May 20, 1765 in Union Township, Berks County. He died a little before February 9, 1814 in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.

He is our direct ancestor. See the John Ryland post.

  1. Elizabeth

 Per the same Bible record, she was born September 15, 1756, in Cumru Township, Berks County.

More about her

We don’t know much. She never appears in her father’s probate. She may have died in infancy.

  1. Rebecca

Per the Bible record, she was born on September 20, 1758 in Union Township, Berks County. She married Peter Foulke (Foulk) on September 18, 1780.

More about her

In all the times she is named and listed with the other heirs in Paul’s probate records, she comes second behind John, who is cited as the eldest. Her mother Louisa in her will gives her personal belongings to daughter Rebecca and to daughter Mary. But if Mary dies without issue, then her share of the belongings go to Rebecca. In Rebecca’s marriage license, her name is spelled as Riley. Peter fought in the War of 1812.

Source for his war record: M. L, Montgomery, History of Berks County, Pennsylvania, vol. 1, Philadelphia: Everts, Peck, & Richards, 1886).

Great resource (but a little outdated):

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I6122

  1. Sarah

Per the same Bible record, she was born on February 8, 1760 in Union Township, Berks County. She married Christian Kemere (also spelled Kemery). She predeceased her father, so she died before March 2, 1789, possibly in late 1788.

More about her

She had a daughter named Mary Magdalena. The court appointed a beloved friend of the family, Samuel Jackson, to be Mary’s guardian during the probate process. One researcher says Sarah’s name was Maria Salome.

Great resource:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I10643

  1. James

Per the same Bible record, he was born on February 9, 1762 in Union Township in Berks County. He married Rebecca Harvey on September 18, 1788, probably in Berks County. She was born on July 12, 1769 in England and died on July 9, 1849, in Clayton, Montgomery County, OH.

More about him

He appears in the 1800 Census, Hopewell Woodberry Township, Bedford County, PA, just above his brother John in the roughly alphabetical list. The census taker says James has three sons who are under 10 years old, and one son who is between 10 and 16. He is in the (too) broad age category 26 to 45 years. He has two daughters who are under 10 years, and his wife is also between 26-45 years old. (See the John Ryland post, for a transcription of the census.) He served in the Revolutionary War, as a ranger in the frontiers of Northumberland County, PA. His service was approved by the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), 3rd Series, V, 23, 194-195.

He is the great-grandfather of poet James Whitcomb Riley.

http://www.jameswhitcombriley.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Whitcomb_Riley

For more discussion on the name change from Ryland to Riley, see the John Ryland post.

He served in the Revolutionary War. Here’s his DAR record:

RYLAND, JAMES

Ancestor #: A204965

Service: PENNSYLVANIA

Rank(s): PATRIOTIC SERVICE, SOLDIER

Birth: ANTE 1759  BERKS CO-PROB PENNSYLVANIA

Death:  POST 6-15-1814 BEDFORD CO – LIV PENNSYLVANIA

Service Source: PA ARCH, 3RD SER, VOL 23, PP 194-195; COLL OF THE GENEA’L SOC OF PA, VOL 268, P 243 – SEIMES, PA ROLL #5

Service Description:

 1) OATH OF ALLEGIANCE, BERKS CO 1777
2) RANGER, NORTHUMBERLAND CO

James Ryland (Reyland), Ranger

James Ryland Ranger PA Archives 2

Jas. (James) Reyland is in the first column, second from top.

Source: David Martin, Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vol. XXXIII (23), ed. William Henry Egle, Harrisburg, State Printer, 1897.

Drawing of a Battle

Rev War Drawing_2

I like to imagine that James served in a company like this while he was a ranger in the Northumberland forests.

Great resource about James:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I17097

  1. William

Per the same Bible record, he was born October 3, 1765 in Robeson Township, Berks County. He married Esther Billing on April 17, 1796, in Exeter Township, Berks County. He died April 18, 1816, in Berks County, Pennsylvania.

More about him

On researcher says his middle name was Ludwig (or his middle name was William and first name was Ludwig). William Ryland appears in the 1800 Census, Berks County, PA (p. 168?). There are a white male 10-16 years old and two white females under 10. He is marked in the (too) broad age category 26 to 45 years, and his wife is also 26-45. Our William and his mother were appointed as administrators of Paul’s estate. Since he served in that capacity by March 2, 1789, he had to be 21 years old by then.

Great resource:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I8962

  1. Andrew

Per the same Bible record, he was born July 23, 1767 in Robeson Township, Berks County. He married Philippina Burckert, March 17, 1793, in Berks County, PA. He died September 25, 1823 in Montgomery County, PA.

More about him

Andrew was old enough to sign a document in his father’s probate, the administration bond, dated March 2, 1789 (see below), so he had to be 21 years old by then, so his birth year fits. Source: Frederic Paul and Jeffrey Howell, Berks County Pennsylvania Marriages 1730-1800 (see Andreas Reiland and Philippina Burckert).

Here is the work from the lead researcher on Andrew Ryland:

Marriage 1 Phoebe BURKHART b: 07 MAY 1769 in Whitemarsh Twp, Montgomery Co,, Pennsylvania, USA

  • Married: 17 MAR 1793 in Schwartzwald Reformed Church, Exeter Twp, Berks Co, Pennsylvania

Children

  1.  Margaret RYLAND b: 02 SEP 1798 in Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, USA
  2.  Samuel Burkhart RYLAND b: 15 NOV 1795 in Near Barren Hill, Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, USA
  3.  Elizabeth RYLAND b: 01 MAR 1803 in Montgomery Co,, Pennsylvania, USA
  4.  William RILAND b: 19 AUG 1793 in Montgomery Co, Pennsylvania, USA
  5.  Rachel Ann RYLAND b: 16 JAN 1805 in Montgomery, Pennsylvania, USA
  6.  Sarah RYLAND b: 13 SEP 1810 in Montgomery, Pennsylvania, USA
  7.  Catherine “Kitty” RYLAND b: 25 DEC 1796 in Montgomery Co., Pennsylvania, USA
  8.  Mary Ann RYLAND b: 31 MAR 1801 in Montgomery, Pennsylvania, USA

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I2714

See these two links for their gravestones:

Andrew:

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=18666148

Phoebe:

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=18666160

Great resource:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I2714

  1. Mary

She was born in about 1769 in Robeson Township or Cumru Township, Berks County.

More about her

She was in her minority when her father died. On March 9, 1790, the court appointed a beloved friend of the family, Samuel Jackson, to be a guardian during the probate process. Louisa gives her personal belongings to her daughter Rebecca and to her daughter Mary. If Mary dies without issue, then her share of the belongings go to Rebecca.

Great resource:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I16518

  1. Rachel

She was born in about 1771 in Cumru Township, Berks County.

More about her

Puzzles and more puzzles.

On December 31, 1789, she is said to be a minor, in Paul’s probate documents. On March 7, 1790, the probate court allows the heirs to receive their fair share of Paul’s estate. However, a significant twist appears in the table that lays out the amounts. Rachel’s share is divided eight ways, representing eight heirs, including Paul’s granddaughter Mary Magdalena Kemere (Andrew is missing from the table, and Sarah, Mary Magdalena’s mother, had already passed away.) Why is Rachel’s share divided like that? Also, on March 9, 1790, petitions seek guardians for Henry, Mary (Paul’s daughter) and Mary Magdalene (Paul’s granddaughter). What is missing is the same document for Rachel. However, John Ryland, Paul’s eldest son, was selling Paul’s property on March 27, 1790. The deed says Rachel is still an heir, and the next paragraph in the deed says John is paying or securing to be paid the living heirs. Finally, in her mother Louisa’s will, dated May 10, 1790, Louisa names only Rebecca and Mary, her two living daughters, not Rachel and incidentally none of her sons.

If she died between December 31, 1789, when she is still named as a minor, and March 7, 1790, when her share of the estate is distributed among the other eight heirs, then we have narrowed down her date of death to five months, more or less. Yet she appears in her deceased father’s final land sale, initiated by her older brother John, on March 27, 1790. But she does not appear in her mother’s will, dated May 10, 1790. So did she die in that narrow span – March 27 to May 10, 1790?

Let’s boil things down. (1) Rachel is named as a minor; (2) but she does not have a petition that seeks a guardian for her, while the other minor heirs have one, each; (3) her share of the estate is distributed eight ways; (4) but she is named as one of the eight living heirs in Paul’s land sale after his decease, and the deed is dated slightly later than the eight-way distribution; (5) yet Rachel is missing from her mother Louisa’s will, while Louisa’s two other daughters are named.

Whatever the answer is to the date debates, we should play it safe and conclude that the summary of all the evidence favors her dying young and unmarried, after her father had died before March 2, 1789 and before her mother wrote up her own will, May 10, 1790.

Bottom line: Rachel died (probably) between March 2, 1789 and May 10, 1790.

  1. Henry

He was born about 1773 in Cumru Township, Berks County. He died January 11, 1862 in Plain Township, Wayne County, Ohio. He married Elizabeth Fluck (pronounced “fluke”) in about 1785 in Bedford County, PA. She died February 1, 1853 in Plain City, Wayne County, Ohio.

More about him

He was in his minority when his father died. On March 9, 1790, the court appointed a beloved friend of the family, Samuel Jackson, to be his guardian during the probate process. So he was under 21 by that date.

The main researcher of Henry Ryland is his direct descendant Forrest Louis Fackler. In his book The Ancestral History of Forrest Louis Fackler (Chapter 4), which he emailed me, he writes about Henry and Elizabeth (Fluck) Ryland:

Transcription Begins:

Henry Ryland signed his will 10 January 1862, leaving all of his possessions to his daughter-in law, Sophia Ryland  . . . Elizabeth (Fluck) Ryland died on 1 February 1853 and, from the will, Henry’s daughter-in-law, Sophia, cared for him in his old age. “In consideration that Sophia Ryland has faithfully administrated to my wants in sickness and old age…” The date of the will is just one day before the death date given in cemetery records. Henry and his wife Elizabeth are buried next to the Baird plot at Pleasant View Cemetery [Ohio]. Aaron Baird and Eunice Murdock and Henry Ryland and Elizabeth Fluck are my sixth generation ancestors. Cemetery records list: Henry died 1-11-1862 in his 88th year and Elizabeth died 2-1-1853 at age 67 years and 2 months. From the cemetery records Henry was born between January 1773 and January 1774, probably in 1773. He was born in Pennsylvania, in Cumru Township, Berks County where his family lived. His father, Paul Ryland, died in 1789 when Henry was about age 15. See page 48 for more on Henry in Pennsylvania. He came to Ohio at about age 38. Elizabeth Fluck was born on December of 1785, in Pennsylvania, and was 26 when she came to Ohio.

Transcription Ends.

The next link shows that John Ewing was part of a group of men who determined that one of Lewis Fluck’s tract could not be divided without spoiling the whole. Lewis was Elizabeth’s father, and John Ewing’s daughter Catherine married William Ryland, and he’s the son of John, who is the son of Paul. Paul, John, and William are our direct line.

http://www.pa-roots.org/data/read.php?48,230877

Go here for the photo of Elizabeth’s grave marker:

https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=40178456

Great resource:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=samaylesworth001&id=I15242

Summary

Paul and Louisa’s offspring are all named in their father’s probate records in two documents, dated December 19, 1789 and December 30 and 31, 1789. The documents specify eight children – the deed using the number eight – at the moment of Paul’s death. (Sarah his daughter predeceased him, and presumably Elizabeth died in infancy.)

Also, on March 27, 1790, they are named in the land sale of Paul’s property, after his decease, specifying eight heirs (minus Sarah) who are about to receive or who already received their fair share, before John the eldest and heir-at-law sold the land. Most of the nine were born in Cumru Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Paul acquired land in Robeson Township (next to Cumru), Berks County, in 1765, so maybe a child or two was born there. Their dates of birth are approximate, in most cases.

More about all of the offspring: They are all named and listed in their father’s probate records in two documents, dated December 19, 1789 and December 30 and 31, 1789. The documents name and specify eight children – the deed using the number eight – at the moment of Paul’s death. Sarah his daughter predeceased him, making nine in total. Also, on March 27, 1790, they are named and listed in the land sale of Paul’s property, after his decease, specifying eight heirs (minus Sarah) who are about to receive or who received their fair share, before John the eldest sold the land. Most of the nine were born in Cumru Township, Berks County, PA. Paul seems to have acquired land in Robeson Township, Berks County, in 1765, so maybe a child or two was born there. Their dates of birth are approximate, in most cases.

PAUL GOES TO AMERICA ON SHIP PATIENCE

Paul Ryland left Germany and traveled to Rotterdam, Holland, where he boarded the ship Patience. It arrived in the Port of Philadelphia on August 11, 1750.

Louis Fackler records this excerpt about Patience, in his own family history:

. . . The ship first left Cowes, England (Island of Wight) and landed in Rotterdam, Holland, to pick up the German passengers. All the Palatine Germans flocked to Rotterdam to then go on to America. Women and children were on those ships, so the passenger list could have been expanded a lot. But those who signed their names were males only.

Paul immigrated to the County of Berks, Pennsylvania. He died in 1789. That means he experienced nearly forty years of Pennsylvania winters.

In his article, Immigrant Ships, Paul A. Darrel provides us with valuable information on the Patience, and what it was like for passengers crossing the Atlantic in the 18th century.

Many sailing vessels made annual runs from England to the colonies. As John W. Heisey has pointed out, only British ships were permitted to land legally at American ports, prior to the Revolutionary War. German immigrants went from a continental port, usually Rotterdam in the 18th century, to a British port, and took passage across the Atlantic from there. Other vessels made the crossing only once.

None of these vessels was very large. The ship (and therefore three-masted) Patience made annual runs to Philadelphia from 1748 to 1753, with the exception of 1752 when she arrived at Annapolis. Klaus Wurst has given particulars: the Patience was a 200-ton ship, had 8 guns, and a crew of 16. (For comparison, the Cutty Sark, the most famous clipper ship of the 19th century, had a net tonnage of 921 tons, and measured 212′ in length, 36′ in width, and 21′ in depth. Clipper ships carried passengers, but were built for speed and cargo.) In 1748, the Patience carried 122 men over 16 (total passengers not given); in 1749, 137 men, 270 persons; in 1750, 124 men, 266 persons; in 1751, 255 persons; in 1752, 260 persons; in 1753, 108 persons. “Immigrant passengers were densely packed, with little space, often with poor food and bad water.

Under such conditions, disease was a commonplace. Some captains were considerate and kept to the terms of the contract, but not all. It is worth noting that the total passengers on the Royal Enterprise (1750) were given as ‘souls’; more often, passengers were listed as ‘Palatines’ or ‘Foreigners’, but sometimes as, ‘Freights’, as if they were mere cargo.

Upon arrival at Philadelphia, males over the age of 16 were taken to the City Hall for the oath of allegiance, then led back to the ship. Those who had their passage money, or could borrow it, were released. The others were consigned to merchants, and announcements were printed in newspapers. Buyers bargained with the passengers for a stated period of service, and paid the merchant the passage money and any other debts. Families were often divided on arrival, as children were ‘sold’ to pay the family’s passage.

Passengers who were sick were not allowed to land. If there was infectious disease on board, the ship had to remove one mile from the port. In 1743, the Assembly at Philadelphia purchased Fisher Island, later named Province Island, its buildings to be used as a hospital. In 1754, 253 persons died there, as recorded in the accounts of one undertaker. Burial expenses were assumed by the merchants to whom the passengers had been consigned.

Transcription ends.

Source: http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/CLEMMER/1999-07/0932048688

 

August 11, 1750. Foreigners imported in the ship Patience, Hugh Steel, Captain, from Rotterdam, last from Cowes.
Stephan Beck Geo. Adam Eckerst J. Michael Leidich
Heinrich Lentz Joh. Peter Wohner Johan Georg Bauer
Peter Groff Balthasar Vetterman Georg Adam Eckart
Christoff Bener Georg Hamen Johann Christoph Kuntz
Andreas Müller Conrad Velten Johan Wilhelm Wann
Georg Schnedh Jacob Mühleyson Johan Arnold Reinhart
Jacob Jacoby Nicklas Mühleyson Johannes Nickel Henrich
Adam Jacobi Wilhelm Diedrich Johann Peter Schütz
Matheis Jacobi Henrich Reinhardt Johannes Adam Lauch
Jacob Burkard Johannes Roller Johan Jacob Weirich
Jacob Bär Christoph Fritz Johann Nickel Brod
Jacob Conrath, Sr. Jacob Lentel Johan Michel Conrad
Jacob Conrath, Jr. Henrich Georg Johan Nickel Hasber
Daniel Miller Christian Mener Johan Jacob Lüsbes
Jacob Reichert Matheas Oberkirsch Johan Peter Diedrich
Samuel Werner Nicklas Conrad Johan Nickel Jung
Johannes Halm Jacob Deremot Philip Jacob Maurer
Peter Wieland Abraham [Roland] Johan Friedrich Pfeil
Hans Peter Treger Andreas Rost Hans Georg Eslinger
Jacob Heckendorn Paulus Rÿlandt Hans Georg Sing
Hans Peter Graff Johannes Eischby Johan Conrad Bross
Hans Jacob Groff Dewald Gerst Johannes Baumgärtner
Johannes Peter Klein Friedrich Gerst Hans Georg Nagel
Johan Nickel Müller David Smith Georg Friedrich Haug
Johan Nickel Cuntz Peter Poland Johan David Görges
Joh. Wilhelm Fuchs Stephen Poland Joh. Andreas Mühlschlägel
Joh. Christoph Orpertag Peter Foltz Joh. Adam Satson
Johan Peter Fitz Jacob Dobeler Johan Philp Ost
Johan David Junge Hans Kawffman Johan Matheis Georg
Joh. Henrich Leineweber Christian Shmitt Friedrich Henrich
Joh. Conrad Wölffle Philip Heiber Johan Matheis Leib
Christian Ulrich Lentz Jacob Keellenthal David Stadelmayer
Christoph Ketteman Michael Juncker Bartholomä Lentzinger
Johan Georg Ketteman Johannes Palm Johan Adam Fetzer
Joh. Jacob Rappoldt Johannes Reichle Johan Adam Stiehl
Georg Friedrich Groh Casper Greiter Joh. Albrecht Velter
Johan Georg Bader Anthon Derffus Johannes Esbenstein
Friedrich Waltzer Carl Vollunte Johan Adam Dentzell
Jacob Schwob Jacob Dannether Johan David Limbech
Georg Loadig Hans Michael Melber Johan Jacob Müller
Total of all passengers: 120

 

I checked the passenger list two or three times with I. Daniel Rupp’s Thirty Thousand Names, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Leary, Stuart, 1927, pp. 224-25).

Oath of Allegiance

On September 14, 1727, Lieutenant Governor Patrick Gordon of the province of Pennsylvania convened the Provincial Council and informed them that a ship from Holland recently arrived with four hundred German Palatinates on board, intending to settle in the province. Other Palatinates were said to arrive in “much greater Number” without permission. They were not his majesty’s subjects, so the governor and council decided to require them to give their names, put in a list, provide their occupations, name their place of origin, give their intentions for coming, and take oaths of allegiance and abjuration.

The oath reads:

We Subscribers, Natives and Late Inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine and Places adjacent, having transported ourselves and Families into the this Province of Pensilvania [sic], a colony subject to the Crown of Great Britain, in hopes and Expectation of finding a Retreat & peaceable Settlement therein, Do Solemnly promise & Engage, that We will be faithful & bear true Allegiance to this present MAJESTY KING GEORGE THE SECOND, and his Successors, Kings of Great Britain, and will be faithful to the Proprietor of this Province; And that we will demean ourselves peaceably to all His said Majesties Subjects, and strictly observe & conform to the Laws of England and of this Province, to the utmost of our Power and best of our understanding.

Transcription ends.

Beginning August 19, 1729, two additional declarations were required to be sworn, their names then being signed in bound books.

One source of this oath says: “All males over sixteen years of age were obliged to take this oath and declaration, as soon after their arrival as possible – being marched to the Court House, although in a number of instances they were qualified at the official residence of the magistrate.”

The first oath reads:

I, A B, do solemnly & sincerely promise & declare that I will be true and faithfull to King George the Second and do solemnly, sincerely and truly Profess Testifie and Declare, that I do from my Heart abhor, detest & renounce as impious & heretical that wicked Doctrine and Position that Princes Excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any other authority of the See of Rome may be deposed or murthered by their subjects or any other what-late, State or Potentate hath or ought to have any power, soever. And I do declare that no foreign Prince, Person, Pre-Jurisdiction, Superiority, Pre-eminence or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within the Realm of Great Britain or the Dominion thereunto belonging.

The second oath reads:

I, A.B., do solemnly sincerely and truly acknowledge profess testify & declare that King George the Second is lawful & rightful King of the Realm of Great Britain & of all others his Dominions & Countries thereunto belonging, and I do solemnly & sincerely declare that I do believe the Person pretending to be Prince of Wales during the Life of the late King James, & since his Decease pretending to be taken upon himself the Stile and Title of King of England by the Name of James the Third, or of Scotland by the Name of James the Eighth or the Stile and title of King of Great Britain hath not any right or title whatsoever to the Crown of the Great Britain, nor any other Dominions thereunto belonging.

And I do renounce & refuse any Allegiance or obedience to him and do solemnly promise, that I will be true and faithful & bear true Allegiance to King George the Second & to him will be faithfull against all traitorous Conspiracies & attempts whatsoever which shall be made against his Person, Crown & Dignity, & I will doe my best Endeavours to disclose & make known to King George the Second & his Successors all Treasons and traitorous Conspiracies which I shall know to be made against him or any of them.

And I will be true and faithfull to the succession of the Crown against him the said James & all other Persons whatsoever as the same is & stands settled by An Act Entitled An Act declaring the Rights & Liberties of the Subject, & settling the Succession of the Crown to the late Queen Anne & the Heirs of her Body being Protestants, and as the same by the other Act Entitled An Act for the further Limitation of the Crown & better securing the Rights & Liberties of the Subject is & stands Settled and Entailed after the decease of the said late Queen, & for Default of Issue of the said late Queen to the late Princess Sophia Electoress & Duchess Dowager at Hanover the Heirs of Her Body being Protestants and all these things I do plainly & sincerely acknowledge promise & declare, according to these express words by me spoken, & according to the plain & common sense and understanding of the same Words, without any Equivocation, mental Evasion or Secret Reservation whatsoever. And I do make this Recognition, Acknowledgement, Renunciation & Promise heartily willingly and truly.

Transcription ends.

Source: R. B. Strassburger and W. J. Hinkle, ed. Pennsylvania German Pioneers, vol. 1, 1727-1775, Camden, ME: Picton P, 1992. And W. H. Egle, ed., Names of Foreigners Who Took the Oath of Allegiance to the Province and State of Pennsylvania, 1727-1775, with the Foreign Arrivals, 1786-1808, Clearfield Co.

PAUL’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR

New Oath of Allegiance

Then nearly twenty-seven years later, Paul Ryland is recorded as taking a new oath for a new allegiance – this time to his new country, as it was breaking free from Great Britain. In the John Ryland post, John and James, two of Paul’s sons, also took the new oath, in the same County of Berks.

 

The Names of the Persons

Who Took the Oath of Allegiance in

Berks County, Pennsylvania,

Act of the General Assembly

June 13, 1777

Recorded in Book D, Vol. I

663. Paul Reyland

The above contribution in 1779 and Paul’s oath of allegiance qualify him to be DAR-approved.

Here is the DAR record on him:

RYLAND, PAUL

Ancestor #: A206879

Service: PENNSYLVANIA

Rank: PATRIOTIC SERVICE

Birth: ANTE 1733

Death: ANTE 12-30-1789     CUMRU TWP BERKS CO PENNSYLVANIA

Service Source: PA ARCH, 3RD SER, VOL 18, PP 192, 339, 468

Service Description: 1) PAID SUPPLY TAX, 1779-1781

Original Record of Paul Raising Supplies, Cumru Township

1779 Raising Supplies 3

Paul Reiland (Ryland) is on the right page, third from top.

This is not a DAR record, but DAR used it to confirm Paul.

It’s about honoring them by bringing their names forward to today. We salute all our veterans and other patriots, regardless of the war they served in.

TAXES, DEEDS, AND GUARDIANSHIP

September 4, 1765, Berks County. East Side Applications, early known as Robeson; 60 acres. No. ES-732.

Source: Kenneth D. McCrea, Pennsylvania Land Applications, vol. 1: East Side Applications, 1765-1769, Pennsylvania Chapter Palatines to America, McCrea Research, 2002.

1780, Berks County. Return and Assessment, Cumru Township (p. 339): 100 acres, 3 horses, 4 cattle; amount of tax 18.0.0 (pounds, shillings, pennies).

Source: William H. Egle and David Martin, Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vol. 18, Harrisburg, 1897.

1780, Berks County. Cumru Township. He appears in the statewide index of about 1780 Tax Lists.

Source: John D. Stemmons. John Ryland also appears in Cumru Township.

1785, Berks County. Land Warranties: Paul Ryland; Hopewell Township XVIII 725; 100 acres; amount of tax: 10.0.0

1785, Berks County. Paul Ryland is taxed 1 Pound, 19 shillings and 9 pence, in 1785.

http://www.footnote.com/image/3072047/Ryland/

1785, Berks County. Assessment of taxes, Cumru Township (p. 725); amount of tax: 1.19.9.

Source: William H. Egle and David Martin, Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vol. 18, Harrisburg, 1897.

1787, Berks County. Paul Ryland is chosen as guardian for Jonathan Steiner;

Source: Berks County Land Records, vol. 10, p. 202.

Deeds are about land transactions, buying and selling. Paul Ryland acquires property in Cumru Township, Berks County. Paul and Louisa lived there for a long time. We can be sure that Paul and Louisa built their home on one of the first three tracts. The first two border Tulphocken Creek, which looks like a river in this link:

http://www.flyfishpa.net/Streams/Tully.htm

Alfred L. Holman

Alfred L. Holman was the lead genealogist of the Newberry Library and arguably the top genealogist in the U.S. at the time of his report (1914).

Here is a summary of his findings:

Rate Books:

1763-1767, Robinson (Robeson) Township, Berks County. Paul Reyley and Riley are found in the Rate Books in possession of the Historical Society of Berks County.

Tax list:

It is in the possession of the Historical Society of Berks County, and covers Cumru Township, Berks County:

1770, Paul Reiley

1771, Paul Reilandt

1772, Paul Reilandt

1773, Paul Reiland

1774, Paul Ryland

1775, Paul Reiland

1778, Paul Reiland

1779, Paul Reyland

1781, Paul Ryland

1785, Paul Reyland

1786, Paul Reyland

1787, Paul Reyland

1788, Paul Ryland

Assessment Lists:

They are also in possession of the Historical Society of Berks County, and cover Cumru Township:

1779, Paul Reyland

1781, Paul Reyland

1785, Paul Reÿland (umlauts or two dots over y)

1786, Paul Ryland

1788, Paul Reyland

1789, Estate of Paul Ryland

Record of Supplies:

It shows money raised to carry on the Revolutionary War and includes Cumru Township:

1779, Paul Reiland: 100 acres, 2 horses, 4 cows; tax: 838.00 [this is surely a mistake for the amount is huge.

http://www.footnote.com/image/3070821/Reiland/

1780, Paul Reyland

1781, Paul Ryland

1782, Paul Ryland

Record of Supplies and State Money Sinking Fund:

It covers Cumru Township:

1782, Paul Reyly

1783, Paul Reyly

The Third Series of the Pennsylvania Archives has tax lists:

1767, Paul Reily, Robinson (Robeson) Township, 100 acres, 2 horse, 2 cows, 4 sheep; tax: 4 (PA archives, 18-72)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3070394/Reily/

1768, Paul Reily, Robinson (Robeson) Township, 130 acres; 3 horses, 3 cows, 6 sheep, tax: 4 (ibid. 18-152)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3070672/Reily/

1779, Paul Reiland, Cumru Township, 100 acres, (ibid. 18-192)

1780, Paul Reyland, same, same, 3 horse, 4 cows, tax: 18 .0 .0 (ibid. 18-339)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3071379/Reyland/

1781, Paul Reiland, same, same, 2 horses, 4 cows; tax:  3 .2 .5 (ibid. 18-468)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3071641/Reiland/

1784, Paul Reyley, same, same, 2 horse, 4 cows, 8 sheep; no. of persons: 8 (18-595)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3071869/Reyly/

1785, Paul Ryland, same, no acreage noted, but tax: 1.19 .0 (18-725)

http://www.footnote.com/image/3072047/Ryland/

Holman writes about the spelling variations:

It is quite possible that the variation in spelling the name may be accounted for to some degree by the nationality of the maker of the list, that is, whether he was or English or German extraction.

Then he continues:

Very little attention need by paid to how various clerks, etc., spelt the name over a hundred years ago, but it is of the utmost importance to know how the man himself spelt his own name, and it is fortunate that in this case his original signature has been found.

Original signatures:

October 25, 1785

Member of a jury of 12 men to value land belonging to the estate of Jacob Kiesling, deceased

December 2, 1785

Like jury to value estate of William Hottenstein

Holman’s point is that Paul spelled it Ryland.

Deeds

February 23, 1771

Henry Fidler of the Township of Hedleberg, Berks County, and Magdalena his wife, to Paul Reiland of Cumru Township, Miller. £500.00, 100 acres in all, in 3 tracts: 91 acres, 7 perches; 5 acres and 118 perches; 3 acres and 35 perches; acknowledged the same date and recorded December 17, 1784.

Note: Paul is said to be a miller in the previous deed.

In the same deed, Paul is already in occupation of the land. A restriction clause gives a certain William Miller water rights. It reads (note the bold font):

Free Right Liberty privilege Use & advantage of raising daming and Swelling the Water in the said Tulpehoccon [sic] Creek over Part of his the said Henry Fidlers Tract of Land in Cumru Township on the South side of the said Creek now in the Tenure and Occupation of Paul Reily & that as high & in such manner as the said William Miller his Heirs and Assigns shall from Time to Time and at all Times think fit and necessary for the Use of the said Mill or Mills.

Commission Book P1, page 193

November 17, 1784

Godlieb Christein of the Borough of Reading, Berks County, and Mary his wife to Paul Reyland of Cumru Township. 10 acres. Acknowledged on the same date, recorded December 17, 1784

Commission Book P1, p. 196

October 6, 1787

Sheriff to Paul Reiland. 35 acres.

I assume it is in the same Commission Book, though Holman does not give the reference.

Final Sale of Paul’s Land

After Paul died in early 1789 and before Louisa died between May 10, and June 7, 1790, John sells the property as a collective, on March 27, 1790.

What are being sold in the deed are the same above five tracts, pieces, or parcels of land. The acquisition dates are in parentheses, which vary a little from Holman’s records:

  1. 91 acres and 7 perches (Feb. 23, 1771)
  2. 5 acres and 118 perches (same date)
  3. 3 acres and 35 perches (same date)
  4. 10 acres (Nov. 2, 1779)
  5. 35 acres (Oct. 10, 1787)

1 Perch = 1 rod = 5.50 yards = 16.5 feet = 5.029 meters

The indenture itself reads:

This Indenture made the twenty-seventh day of March in the year of our Lord, one thousand and seven hundred and ninety, between John Reiland, of the township of Hopewell, in the County of Bedford, in the State of Pennsylvania, yeoman, and Susanna his wife of the one part, and Michael Meyer of the Township of Cumru in the County of Berks in the State of Pennsylvania, aforesaid yeoman of the other part.

Whereas, by force and virtue of some good conveyances and assurances in the law duly had and executed a certain Paul Reiland (the father [of] aforenamed John Reiland) became in his lifetime lawfully seized in his demesne, of fee, of and in five certain tracts, pieces or parcels of land, the same are situate, lying and being in the township of Cumru aforesaid bounded and described, respectively, as follows, viz:

One of them beginning at a marked white oak standing on Tulpehocken Creek, thence by George Boon’s land south sixty-two degrees west eighty-seven perches to a post thence south seventy-one degrees west eighty-five perches to a post thence south sixty degrees west fifteen perches and a half to a black oak; thence northwest twenty-four perches and a half to a post thence by Anthony Morris’s land north forty-four degrees east two hundred and thirty-two perches to a marked hickory standing on the said Tulpehocken Creek thence down the same on the several courses thereof one hundred and twelve perches to the place of beginning, containing ninety-one acres and seven perches and the usual allowance of six acres percent for roads, etc.

[Which said tract of land being granted by the honorable the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, etc. by their patent or grant under their marks and seals, bearing date the 9th day of November 1758, recorded at Philadelphia in Patent Book A, vol. 20, page 210, etc., unto James Kiemer, his heirs and assigns forever, under the yearly Quit Rent aforesaid and by the said recited patent is reserved, may more fully appear; who with Elizabeth his wife by Indenture, dated first day of April 1762, recorded at in Book A, vol. 6, pages 162, 163, & 164

Did grant the said tract of land unto Henry Fry, under the Quit Rent aforesaid, as may appear; who with Catharina his wife, by their Indenture dated 21st day of January 1760, recorded at Reading in Book A, vol. 6, pages 164-165, etc., did grant the said tract of land unto Henry Fidler, under the Quit Rent aforesaid, as may fully appear.]

One other of them beginning at a marked white oak standing on the southeasterly bank of Tulpehocken Creek thence down the said Creek on the several courses thereof twenty-two perches to a post for a corner thence by land of Ludwig Held south eighty-five degrees and a half west fifty-one perches to a heap of stones for a corner thence by other land of Henry Fidler north sixty degrees east forty-two perches to the place of beginning, containing five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches of land.

And one other of them beginning at a Spanish oak corner thence by land of the aforesaid Henry Fidler north forty-seven degrees west forty perches and a half to a post in line of land of Thomas Youngman thence along the same south forty-three degrees west thirteen perches and six-tenth parts of a perch to a post a corner of other land of the said Ludwig Held thence by the same, south forty-seven degrees east thirty-five perches and a half to a post thence by the same south sixty degrees west fourteen perches and two-tenth parts of a perch to the place of beginning, containing three acres and thirty-five perches of land.

[The same two last described tracts being part of a tract of 216 acres and allowance which the the [sic] Proprietaries of Pennsylvania aforesaid by their patent dated the 14th day of July 1749, recorded at Philadelphia in Book A, vol. 14, page 202, etc., did grant to the aforenamed James Kiemer, in fee; who with Elizabeth his wife by their Indenture dated the first day of April 1762, recorded at Reading in Book A, vol. 5, page 11, etc., did grant the same unto the aforenamed Henry Frey, in fee, who with Catharine his wife by their Indenture dated the 10th day of May 1765, recorded at Reading in Book A, page, 13 etc., did grant the same unto Michael Schouer, in fee; who with Elizabeth Catharina his wife by their Indenture, dated the 23rd day of March 1769, did grant the same unto Ludwig Held, in fee; who with Mary Magdalena his wife by their Indenture [crossed out, caret] Deed of Exchange dated the 13th day of March [crossed out, caret] November 1770, recorded at Reading in Book A, vol. 6, page 31st etc., did grant the said last two described tracts unto the aforenamed Henry Fidler, under and subject to certain exceptions, covenants, clauses, and conditions in the said Deed of Exchange mentioned may appear; who with Magdalena his wife by their Indenture dated the 23rd day of February 1771, recorded at Reading in Book P, page 193, etc., did grant the said herein before three described tracts of land unto the above named Paul Reiland, in fee.]

One other of them beginning at a post in a line of Christian Stattyfoor’s (?) land thence extending by the same north fifty degrees west fifty-seven perches to a stone forty degrees west twenty-eight perches and one-tenth of a perch to a stone thence by land of John Morris fifty degrees east fifty-seven perches to a stone and Ludwig Held’s land north forty degrees east twenty-eight perches and one-tenth of a perch to the place of beginning, containing ten acres of land, be the same, more or less (the same being part of a tract of land of 500 acres, which the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania aforesaid by their patent dated as therein mentioned, recorded at Philadelphia in Book G, vol. 12, page 120 etc., did grant the same unto Anthony Morris and Stephen Armitt, in fee. Said Stephen Aimitt [sic] by his last Will and Testament duly proven and remaining in the Register’s Office at Philadelphia, empowered his executors, his wife Sarah and his brother John Armitt, to sell his moiety of said tract of land, who accordingly by their Indenture dated the 10th day of July 1752, did grant the same unto the aforesaid Anthony Morris, the other tenant in fee, who by his last Will and Testament dated 29th day of September 1760 did devise (among others) that all his real estate if not otherwise disposed should be divided between the devisees and legatees in said Will named, of which undisposed estate the aforesaid tract were part; whereupon a writ of partition was brought in the Court of Common Pleas of Berks County, aforesaid, as by the Records of said Court will appear August term the 8th year of the reign of George 3rd  [reigned 1760-1820], when accordingly partition was made and awarded Anthony

Anthony Morris and Elizabeth his wife, Samuel Morris and Hannah his wife, and Anthony Junior by their Indenture dated 4th day of April 1769, recorded at Reading in Book A, vol. 6, page 89, etc., did grant two described tracts unto Thomas Youngman, being part of the original 500 acres; who with Catharina his wife by their Indenture dated the 19th day of December 1769 did grant the same unto John Garver and who, being so seized of the same, died intestate.

And whereas on the partition of John Garver, eldest son and heir at law of the said John Garber [sic], deceased, prepared a partition to an Orphan’s Court at Reading, for the County of Berks aforesaid to the trustees of the said Court, setting forth as therein, is set forth and upon the return of the Sheriff and an inquest, awarded to value the premises of said deceased, etc. And whereupon the Court adjudged said land to be the property of said John Garver, eldest son of said John Garver, deceased, as in and by the records and proceedings of said Court, reference being thereunto had fully will appear; who with Anna Maria his wife by their Indenture dated 2nd day of November 1779, recorded at Reading in Book A, vol. 7, page 164, etc., did grant the same unto Gotlieb Christine (?), in fee; who with Mary his wife by their Indenture dated the 17th day of November 1784, recorded at Reading in Book P, page 196, etc., did grant the same unto the above named Paul Reiland, in fee.]

And one other being the last of the above mentioned five tracts, adjoining lands of the said John Garver, John Schmucker and others, containing thirty-five acres or thereabouts, be the same, more or less. [It is the same tract of land which Peter Filbert, Esquire, High Sheriff of the County of Berks, aforesaid, by his Deed Poll, dated the 6th day of October 1787, did grant unto the above named Paul Reiland according to the Acts of the General Assembly, in such case made and provided as in and by the Records of the Court of Common Pleas of the County of Berks, aforesaid, may more fully appear.]

And the said Paul Reiland, being so seized of the said above mentioned and described tracts, pieces, or parcels of ninety-one acres and seven perches, and five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches, and three acres and thirty-five perches, and ten acres, and thirty-five acres of land with their and each and every of their appurtenances, died intestate, leaving ____ eight children, (to wit): John Reiland (party herto?), Rebecca the wife of Peter Foulke, James, William, Andrew, Mary, Rachel, and Henry, and the one granddaughter named Mary, the daughter of Sarah Kemery [Kemere], deceased, by Christian, which said Sarah was also one of the daughters of the said Paul Reiland, deceased, as may appear.

And whereas, just proceedings were had in the Orphans Court of the County of Berks, aforesaid, the thirteenth day of March last ____? And at divers other days and times relating  to the real estate of the said intestate that the same, having been first duly valued and appreciated by an inquest awarded by the said Court, was by the said Court adjudged to the said John Reiland, eldest son and heir at law, of the said intestate ____? The same (?) to him, his heirs and assigns forever, he (?) paying or securing to be paid to the other children and representatives of the same intestate their respective shares of such valuation according to law, as in and by the records and proceedings of said Court ____ being thereunto had more fully and at large appears. And the said John Reiland, having given security with the approbation of the said Court for the payment of the shares and dividends, aforesaid.

Now this Indenture witnesseth that the said John Reiland and Susanna his wife, for and in consideration of the sum of eight hundred and sixty-one pounds and ten [sic] shillings, lawful money of Pennsylvania, to them in-hand (?) paid by the said Michael Meyer, at and before the unsealing and delivery here of the receipt whereof the said John Reiland and Susanna his wife do hereby acknowledge and thereof acquit (?) and forever discharge the said Michael Meyer, his heirs, executors, and administrators by these presents, do grant, bargain, sell _____ _____ release and confirm unto the said Michael Meyer, his heirs, and assigns the said above mentioned and described five tracts, pieces or parcels of ninety-one acres and seven perches, and five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches, and three acres and thirty-five perches and ten acres, and thirty-five acres of lands, together with all and singular the buildings, improvements, other the houses, out-houses, barns, stables, fences, ways, woods, waters, water courses, rights, liberties, privileges, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging or in anywise appertaining on the reverse and remainders, rents _____ and profits thereof, and also all the estate rights, titles, interest, property, claims, and demand (?) whatsoever of the said John Reiland and Susanna his wife in law or equity or otherwise howsoever of, into, or out of the same, to have and to hold the said above mentioned and described five tracts, pieces or parcels of ninety-one acres and seven perches, and five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches, and three acres and thirty-five perches, and ten acres, and thirty-five acres of land, hereditaments, and premises hereby granted or mentioned or intended so to be with the appurtenances unto the said Michael Meyer, his heirs and assigns, to the only proper _____ and behoof of the said Michael Meyer, his heirs, and assigns forever, under and subject always nevertheless, to all and singular, the exceptions, provisos, clauses, covenants and restrictions mentioned and contained in the said above recited Deed of Exchange.

And to all and singular the covenants, grants, provisos, clauses and restrictions mentioned and contained in a certain Indenture made between the said and above named Henry Fidler and Magdalena his wife of the one part and a certain William Miller of the other part, bearing date the first day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy; particularly of and concerning the said William Miller, his heirs, and assigns, right of overflowing part of the hereby granted premises by damming up the water in Tulpehocken Creek, aforesaid, which or [is?] as follows (to wit): free right, liberty, privilege, use and advantage of raising, damming, and _____  the water in the said Tulpehocken Creek over part of his the said Henry Fidler’s tract of land in Cumru township, on the south side of the said Creek (then) in the tenure and occupation of Paul Reiland and that as high and in such manner as the lord William Miller, his heirs, and assigns shall from time to time and at all times think fit and necessary for the use of the said mill or mills. And also to the proportionable part or parts of the Property _____ yearly Quit Rent or Rents now due or hereafter to become due and payable for the same, to the chief lord or lords of the fee thereof.

And the said John Reiland for himself, his heirs, executors, and administrators doth (?) covenant, promise, grant, and agree to and with the said Michael Meyer, his heirs and assigns, by these presents that he the said John Reiland and his heirs, the said above mentioned and described five tracts, pieces or parcels of ninety-one acres and seven perches, and five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches, and three acres and thirty-five perches, and ten acres, and thirty-five acres of land (except as it is herein before excepted) hereditaments and premises hereby granted or mentioned or intended so to be with the appurtenances unto the said Michael Meyer, his heirs and assigns, against him the said John Reiland and his heirs and against all and every other person and persons whomsoever lawfully claiming or to claim by, from, or under him, them or any of them shall and will warrant and forever defend by these presents.

And further that he the said John Reiland and his heirs and all and every other person or persons lawfully claiming or to claim by, from, or under him or any of them shall and will from time to time and at all times hereafter upon the reasonable request and at the proper costs and charges in the law of the said John Reiland and his heirs and make, do, and execute or cause and procure to be made, done, and executed all and every such further and other lawful and reasonable act or acts, deed or deeds, device or devices in the law whatsoever, for the further, better, more perfect and absolute assurance and confirmation of the said above mentioned and described five tracts, pieces, or parcels of ninety-one acres and seven perches, and five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches, and three acres and thirty-five perches, and ten acres, and thirty-five acres of land (except as it is herein before excepted) hereditaments and premises hereby granted, mentioned or intended so to be with the appurtenances unto the said Michael Meyer, his heirs, and assigns as by him or them or by his or their counsel, learned in the law, shall be reasonably advised, devised or required.

In witness whereof, the said parties to these presents have hereunto interchangeably set their hands and seals, dated the day and year first within written:

John Ryland seal Susanna Reiland seal sealed and delivered in the presence of _____ _____, John (?) Kantner, and sealed and delivered by Susanna Ryland in the presence of Josiah Espye, George Woods — Received the day of the date of the within

within [sic] written Indenture of the within named Michael Meyer, the within mentioned sum of eight hundred and sixty-one pounds and ten shillings, in specie, it being the consideration money within mentioned in full, I say (?) recd (?) _____ John Ryland, £861.19 s. [sic] Witness present at signing _____ _____ Berks County ss.

Be it remembered that on the twenty-seventh day of March, anno seal domini 1790, came before me the subscriber, one of the Justices of the Peace of the Court of Common Pleas for said County, the within named John Reiland, and acknowledged the within written Indenture to be his act and deed and devised that the same might be recorded as such according to law.

Witness my hand and seal the day and year aforesaid. John Otto —- Bedford County ss.

On the twenty-first day of March anno domini 1791. Personally came before me the subscriber, President of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the County of Bedford aforesaid, the within named Susanna (wife of the above named John Ryland) and acknowledged the within and above written Indenture to be her act and deed, she the said Susanna being of full age and first privately and apart from her husband by me examined, she, being acquainted with the contents thereof, declared she executed the same freely and voluntarily without any coercion or compulsion from her said husband.

Witness my hand and seal etc. George Woods seal

Recorded and this record and the original compared found to agree exactly, on the 16th day of December anno domini 1795.

Transcription ends.

Here is a list of Paul’s offspring included in the lengthy deed and the relevant paragraph:

And the said Paul Reiland … died intestate, leaving ____ eight children, (to wit): John Reiland (party hereto?), Rebecca the wife of Peter Foulke, James, William, Andrew, Mary, Rachel, and Henry, and the one granddaughter named Mary, the daughter of Sarah Kemery [Kemere], deceased, by Christian, which said Sarah was also one of the daughters of the said Paul Reiland, deceased ….

Note how it specifies eight.

John (eldest son and heir-at-law)

Rebecca (wife of Peter Foulke)

James

William

Andrew

Mary (minor)

Rachael (minor)

Henry (minor)

Mary (Paul’s granddaughter, daughter of Sarah, deceased, and of Christian Kemery, and presumably Elizabeth died in infancy.)

PAUL AND LOUISA’S PROBATE

Sources:

www.co.berks.us/rwills, go to genealogy.

Will Book 4 p. 133 at the Berks County Court

Let’s begin.

March 2, 1789

Paul Ryland died intestate (no will). This document says that Louisa Ryland, Paul’s widow, and William Ryland, one of his sons, are made administrators and are ordered to take an inventory of Paul’s land and goods, done by sworn and qualified citizens. The X between Louisa’s name means she signed with her mark, not her signature. But I see a partial signature. William and her other son Andrew sign it.

R

admin’n Bond

sur Estate of

Paul Ryland Deceased

KNOW all Men by these Presents, that WE Louisa Ryland of Cumry [sic] Township in Berks County widow & Relict of Paul Ryland Deceased & William Ryland Son of the said Deceased, Christian Stoltzfuss & Abraham Reasor of the said County

are held and firmly bound unto Henry Christ Register of the Probate of Wills and granting Letters of Administration in and for the County of BERKS, in the Sum of one thousand  Pounds, Lawful Money of Pennsylvania, to be paid to the said Henry Christ Register, his certain Attorney, Executors, Administrators or Assigns. To which Payment well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our Heirs, Executors and Administrators, and every of them, jointly and severally for and in the Whole, firmly by these Presents. Sealed with our Seals, Dated the Second Day of March Anno Domini 1789

The Condition of the above Obligation is such, that if the above bounden Louisa Ryland & William Ryland Administrators of all and singular the Goods, Chattels, Rights and Credits which were of Paul Ryland deceased, do make, or cause to be made, a true and perfect Inventory of all and singular the Goods, Chattels, Rights &c Credits, which were of the said deceased within said County, which have or shall come into the Hands, Possession or Knowledge of the said Louisa & William Ryland or into the Hands Possession or Knowlege [sic] of any other Person or Persons for them and the same so made do exhibit, or cause to be exhibited, into the Register’s Office at Reading, in and for the County of BERKS, at or before the Second Day of April next; and the same Goods, Chattels, Rights and Credits, which were of the said Deceased at the Time of his Death, or which at any Time heretofore have come, or hereafter shall come to the Hands, Possession and Knowledge of the said Louisa and William Ryland  or of any other Person or Persons for them do well and truly administer according to Law.

And further do make, or cause to be made, a true and just Account, Calculation or Reckoning of their said Administration at or before the Second Day of March in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and [crossed out:] /eighty/ ninety And all the Rest and Residue, which shall be found remaining upon the said Administrators Account, the same being first examined and allowed of by the Orphan’s Court of the County of BERKS shall deliver and pay unto such Person or Persons, as the said Court by its Decree or Sentence shall limit and appoint.  And if it shall hereafter appear, that any last Will and Testament was made by the said Deceased, and the Executor or Executors therein named, do exhibit the same into the said Register’s Office, making Request, to have it allowed and approved accordingly, if the said Louisa & William Ryland being thereunto required, do render and deliver up the said Letters of Administration Approbation of such Testament being first had and made in the said Office, then the above Obligation to be void & of none Effect, or else so be and remain in full Force and Virtue.

Sealed and Delivered in Presence of

John Christ

Louisa (X) Ryland

Andrew Ryland

William Ryland

Christian Stoltzfus

Abraham Reasar

Transcription ends.

March 17 and 23, 1789

Here is the inventory, ordered on March 2 and taken on March 17, 1789. The results were “exhibited” on March 23, 1789.

R

Inventory

Sur Estate of

Paul Ryland Deceased

exhi’t March 23’d 1789

Inventory of the Goods & Chattels which were late of Paul Ryland of Cumreu [sic] Township in Berks County Deceased, Taken this 17th Day of the 3rd Month 1789

By

Lois [sic] Ryland} Administratrix

William Ryland} Administrator

 

£ S D
Waring [sic, Wearing] Apparel 11 3 9
Cash 17 19 0
Clock & Watch 2 5 0
Five Books 1 0 0
Chest 0 12 0
Five pewter Basins and 12 Spoons 0 6 9
Pewter Dish and 6 Plates 0 6 0
Basket Tea-Ware & 6 Plates 0 5 6
Sundries of Earthen Glass and Tin 0 2 6
Glass Ware 0 2 0
Spinning Wheel and Reel 0 12 0
Flax, ton, and Yarn 2 2 0
Cotton 0 6 0
Three brass kettles 0 19 0
Tin Bucket and Cups 0 4 6
Bed & Beding [sic] 2 10 0
Chest 0 10 0
Seven Chairs and a Brush 0 12 0
Table 1 0 0
Gun 0 18 0
Two Wheels 1 18 0
Bottle Cann [sic] and Funnel 0 1 10
£ 45 5 4
Brought over £ s D
Bed and Beding 2 5 0
Bed and Beding 1 10 0
Two Beds and Beding 2 10 0
Feather Bed & 4 Bed Cases 1 12 0
Seven Sheets and 12 Pillow Cases 1 6 0
Five Table Cloths & eight Hand Towels 0 17 6
Window Curtins [sic] & three Wallets 0 4 6
Trunk two Boxes and a Cupboard 0 4 6
Flat Irons Steelyards and Sheep Shears 0 15 0
Chards & Basket 0 10 0
Two Saddles 2 5 0
Pewter Dish Basins Plates and Spoons 0 19 0
Coffee Mill Tea Ware and tin Cups 0 6 0
Scales Waets [sic] and Earthen Pots 0 5 8
Cupboard and Table 0 2 0
Frying Pan Dripping Ditto and Dishes 0 9 0
Skellet [sic] Lamp Strainers and grater 0 6 0
Six Iron Pots 0 12 6
Three brass Kettles and two tin Buckets 1 7 0
Four Wheels Saddle & Casks 0 8 6
Soal-Leather & Calf-skin 0 15 0
Buckets and Tubs 1 7 0
Hogshead Barrels and Kegs 0 14 0
Churn Buckets and sundries 0 8 6
Apple-Mill 0 7 6
Mall Wedges Auger Pinchers and Hammer 0 4 0
Stove 0 17 0
Grind-Stone & three Axes 0 9 0
Waggon [sic] 4 15 0
Harrow and Waggon Body 0 13 0
£ 29 5 2
Brought over £ s D
Five Ploughs 1 2 6
Two Brakes 3 Scythes and Cradles 0 13 0
Lock Chain Spade and Hopples 0 6 9
Two forks Hook Shovel and tar-Pot 0 4 6
Wind-Mill and two grubbing Hoes 1 1 0
Mare 8 0 0
Ditto 8 0 0
Horse 13 0 0
Ditto 13 0 0
Colt 2 5 0
Young Mare 6 0 0
four pair of gears 1 15 0
Four Collars and six Bridles 0 5 6
Cow 3 2 6
Ditto 3 0 0
Ditto 2 0 0
Ditto 2 10 0
Ditto 2 5 0
Ditto 2 15 0
Bull 1 10 0
Stear [sic] 0 18 0
Heifer 0 12 0
Nine Sheep and nine Lambs 5 10 0
Seven Swine 2 12 0
Bags Waggon Covers and 3 Hoes 2 1 6
Stove 3 5 0
Knives & Forks 0 5 6
Cutting Knife and Box 0 3 0
Four Calves and 7 Cow Chains 1 12 0
£ 89 14 9
£ s D
Brought over
One hundred Bushels of Wheat more or less at 5/0 per Bushel 25 0 0
Thirty six Bushels of Rye more or less at 3/0 per bushel 5 8 0
Ten Bushels of Oats at 1/8 per Bushel 0 16 8
Five Bushels of Flax Seed at 2/6 per bushel 0 12 6
Nineteen Acres of Wheat at 1£ 14s. per Acre 12 6 0
Six Acres and a Half of Rye at 15/0 per Acre 4 17 6
Beef Bacon and Salt 1 0 7
Tallow Candles and Lard 0 10 0
Half-Bushel and Baskets and Dryapels [sic] 0 7 6
Hay 0 7 6
Debts due to said Estate 28 10 9
Debts due to said Estate [sic] 2 6 6
Loan Offis [sic] Certificate 23 12 2
£ 115 5 8
Pa[ge] first £ 45 4 4
D[itt]o 2 £ 29 5 2
Do 3 £ 89 14 9
Total £ 280 0 11

 

We the Subscribers Chosen to Value and Appraise the above mentioned Goods and Chattels have Valued the same according to the best of our skill and Judgment as per the prices set to the several Article in the above Inventory

Witness Our Hands the Day & Year aforesaid

Abraham Reasar

Jacob [Feder]

23’d march 1789

Abraham Reasor & Jacob Feder sworn before me

Henry Christ Register

Transcription ends.

December 19, 1789

Since Paul Ryland died intestate (no will), this document, initiated by John Ryland (Paul and Louisa’s eldest son), asks twelve men to make an assessment of the property and goods of the deceased, to see if it can be divided properly among the heirs.

To the Honourable the Justices of the Orphans Court of the County of Berks

The Petition of John Ryland Eldest son and Heir at Law of Paul Ryland late of Cumru Township in the said County Yeoman deceased

Humbly sheweth

That your Petitioners said Father lately died Intestate leaving a Widow to wit Louisa and Issue eight children to wit [careted in:] /your/ Petitioner Rebecca [careted in:] /the Wife of Peter Foulke/ James William Andrew Mary Rachael and Henry the three last named of whom are yet in their Minority and also one Granddaughter named Mary the Daughter of Sarah Kemery [sic] by [crossed out:] /John/ Christian Kemery which said Sarah was also one of the Children of the said deceased. And that the said deceased died seized in his Demesne as of Fee of and in A Certain Messuage [sic] Plantation and Tract of Land situate in the said Township of Cumru adjoyning [sic] Lands of the Heirs of Ludwig Holt deceased John Smucker and others containing One hundred and forty five Acres or thereabouts be the same more or less with the Appurtenances  Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays your Honors to award an Inquest to make partition of the said Messuage Plantation and Tract of Land containing One hundred and forty five Acres be the same more or less with the Appurtenances to and among the Children and Representatives of the said Intestate in such manner and in such Proportions as by the Laws of this Commonwealth is directed if such Partition can be made without Prejudice to or spoiling the whole   But if such Partition cannot be made thereof as aforesaid Then to appraise and Value the same and make report of their proceedings herein according to Law

Reading Dec’r. 19th 1789

And he will pray &c

[Signed] John Ryland

Transcription ends.

And so John’s short petition names Paul’s living children:

John (eldest son and petitioner)

Rebecca (wife of Peter Foulke)

James

William

Andrew

Mary (minor)

Rachael (minor)

Henry (minor)

Mary (Paul’s granddaughter, daughter of Sarah, deceased, and of Christian Kemery and presumably Elizabeth died in infancy.)

Image of the Above Petition

Paul's Probate 6

Note John’s Signature

December 30 and 31, 1789

The document also seeks a just division of the property and goods of the late Paul Ryland. It also lists his children, including his granddaughter Mary, by Sarah and Christian Kemere (or Kemery); Sarah had also predeceased her father. Paul’s children, Mary (his daughter), Rachael and Henry, are minors. The italics font indicates the names or words that fill in the blanks of this preprinted form.

R 1789

Petition John Ryland

for Valuation of the Real Estate

of Paul Ryland dec’d

Dec’r. 30th 1789

Present

James Diemer}

John Otto&}

John Eckert}

Esquires

Inquest awarded- issued

Inq’t__etble 2. Tuesday in March

No. 30 L

[seal]

BERKS-COUNTY, ss

THE COMMONWEALTH of PENNSYLVANIA, to the Sheriff of the County of BERKS, greeting: WHEREAS John Ryland Eldest Son and Heir at Law of Paul Ryland late of the Township of Cumru in the County of BERKS, deceased, on the thirtieth Day of December Instant  preferred a Petition to the Justices of the Orphan’s Court, of the County aforesaid; setting forth that the Petitioner’s said Father lately died intestate, seized in his Demesne, as of Fee, of, and in a certain Messuage Plantation & Tract of Land situate, lying and being in the Township of Cumru in the said County adjoyning [sic] the Lands of the Heirs of Ludwig Holt deceased John Smucker and others containing One hundred and forty five Acres or thereabouts be the same more or less with the Appurtenances And that the [crossed out:] /said/ Petitioners said Father left a Widow to wit Louisa and Issue Eight Children to wit the Petitioner, Rebecca the Wife of Peter Foulke, James, William, Andrew, Mary, Rachael [sic] and Henry the three Last of whom are still in their Minority and also one Grand daughter named Mary, the Daughter of Sarah Kemery [sic] deceased by John [careted in:] /Christian/ Kemery which said Mary was also one of the said Intestate

AND THEREFORE praying the Court to award an Inquest, to part and divide the said Real Estate, to, and among the said Children, if the same can conveniently be done, without Prejudice to, or spoiling the whole;  and if the same cannot be done without Prejudice to, or spoiling the whole, then further praying the Court, to order the said Inquest to value and appraise the same, according to the Directions of the Acts of the General Assembly of PENNSYLVANIA, in such Case made and provided; and the said Court have thereupon awarded an Inquest to the Purpose aforesaid.

YOU ARE THEREFORE COMMANDED, that taking with you Twelve honest and Lawful Men, of your Bailiwick, you go to the said Messuage Plantation and Tract of Land containing One hundred and [fo]rty five Acres or thereabouts with the Appurtenances situate in Cumru Township [a__]  aforesaid and thereby their Oath or solem[n] [Af]firmation in the Presence of the Parties by [Messuage Plantation and Tract of Land containing as aforesaid One hundred and forty five Acres be the same more or less with] Appurtenances [wher]eof the aforesaid Paul Ryland died seized Intestate; having Respect to the true Value thereof, [to] and among the said Parties, you cause to be parted and divided, if that Partition or Division can be made without Prejudice to, or spoiling the [w]hole thereof; and to each and every of the Children of the said Intestate, their respective Sha[re] therein according to LAW; TO HOLD [to] them in Severalty, you assign and deliver, &c.

BUT if the said Inquest cannot make the sai[d] Partition or Division of the said Messuage Plantation and Tract of Land containing as aforesaid One hundred and forty five Acres be the same more or less with the Appurtenances without Prejudice to, or spoiling the whole thereof, that then you cause the said Inquest to value and appraise the said Messuage Plantation and Tract of Land containing One hundred and forty five Acres with the Appurtenances whereof the said Paul Ryland died seized.

AND that, that Partition or Valuation so made, you distinctly and openly have before the Justices at Reading, at an Orphan’s Court, there to be held, the Ninth Day of March next UNDER your Hand and Seal, and under the Hands and Seals of those, by whose Oath or Solemn Affirmation, the same Partition or Valuation shall be made. AND have you there then this WRIT;

WITNESS James Deimer Esquire at Reading, the thirty first Day of December in the Year of our LORD, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty nine

Ja’s. Scull

Transcription ends.

And so once again John names Paul’s living children:

John (eldest son and petitioner)

Rebecca (wife of Peter Foulke)

James

William

Andrew

Mary (minor)

Rachael (minor)

Henry (minor)

Mary (Paul’s granddaughter, daughter of Sarah, deceased, and of Christian Kemery and presumably Elizabeth died in infancy.)

January 2, 1790

This document says that the twelve men could not divide the land or goods without spoiling the whole (see the December 19, 1789 document, above). So the twelve put a value of £750.00 (see the table for March 9, 1790, below).

Inquisition indented and taken at the Township of Cumru in the County of Berks and state of Pennsylvania the second day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Ninety;

Before Jacob Bower Esquire high Sheriff of the county aforesaid, By Virtue of a Writ from the Orphans Court to me directed and to this inquisition annexed by the oath of Peter Filbert, John Witman, Peter Feather Seine’r, Philip – Kremer, Caleb Jones, Jacob Moyer, Peter Baum, Michael Lotz, Barnhard Adam, Jacob Feather and Solomn [sic] Affirmation of William Green and Peter Bright [sic]——- Twelve honest and Lawfull [sic] men of the said County upon their Oath and Solomn Affirmation respectively, do say that they went to the Real Estate or Lands and tenements in the said Writ mentioned whereof [crossed out:] /Peter Long/ Paul Ryland in the said writ mention’d died seiz’d and then and there did find that the same could not be parted and divided [to] and among the Parties in the said Writ named without Prejudice to or spoiling the whole thereof,

Therefore they have Valued and appraised the said real Estate or Lands and premisses with the appurtenances at Seven hundred and fifty pounds——- in Gold or silver Coin now Current in Pennsylvania Subject to all monies, In[terest] or [incumbrances] not due or recoverable or hereafter to become due or recoverable for the same Premisses.  In Testimony whereof as well the said Sheriff as the inquest aforesaid have hereunto interchangeably set their hands and seals the day & year aforesaid.

[signed horizontally] J’b Bower, Sheriff

Peter Baum [seal]

Peter Filbert [seal]

Mich__ Lotz [seal]

John Witman [seal]

Bernhard (X) Adam [seal]

Peter Feather [seal]

Jacob Feather [seal]

Philip Kremer [seal]

Peter Brecht [seal]

Caleb Jones [seal]

Wm Green [seal]

Jacob Myer [seal]

Transcription ends.

March 9, 1790

Before the £750.00 can be divided, the minor heirs of Paul need to be represented. This document seeks a guardian for Mary Ryland, minor daughter of Paul and Louisa Ryland. Samuel Jackson, according to Louisa’s Will (May 10, 1790), is Louisa’s “beloved friend.” He will also be the executor of her estate. Families often appointed a “good friend” or a “beloved friend” as an executor.

In a letter dated July 13, 1995, from Register of Wills / Clerk of Orphan’s Court letterhead, Donna L. Humbert, the Research specialist for the Register of Willis office, writes to me:

In my experience, “Orphan’s Court” usually involves (minors under 21) who have lost one or both parents and will inherit from the parent’s estate, or (2) minors who are inheriting from a relative’s estate. A guardian needs to be appointed to oversee the affairs of the minor until he reaches the age of 21.

Here are the petitions for guardianship:

R   1790

Petition

Mary Ryland for Guardian

Mar. 9. 1790.

Present

James Diemer}

Daniel Ludwig &}

Mathias Richards}

& John Otto}

Esquires Justices

Petition being admitted

chooses Samuel Jackson

of Reading Hatter

To the honorable the Justices of the Orphans Court of the County of Berks.

The Petition of Mary Ryland Daughter of Paul Ryland late of Cumru Township in the said County Yeoman deceased

Humbly Sheweth

That your Petitioner is a Minor above the Age of fourteen Years of Age and hath no Guardian appointed to take care of her Person and Estate.

Your Petitioner therefore prays Your honors to admit her to make choice of a Guardian for the Purposes aforesaid

And she will pray &c-

Mary (X) Ryland

M [her mark]

Transcription ends.

March 9, 1790

This document seeks a guardian for Henry Ryland, minor son of Paul and Louisa Ryland. What is missing is the same document for Rachael. Maybe she reached her majority by March 9, 1790, about a year after her father Paul died.

R 1790

Petition

Henry Ryland for Guardian

Mar. 9. 1790

Present

James Diemer}

Daniel Ludwig}

John Otto &}

Mathias Richard}

Esquires

Justices

The Petitioner chooses

Abraham Reasor who is

approved of and appointed

by the Court

To the honorable the Justices of the Orphans Court of the County of Berks

The Petition of Henry Ryland son of Paul Ryland Late of Cumru Township in the said County Yeoman deceased

Humbly Sheweth

That your Petitioner is a Minor above the Age of fourteen Years and hath no Guardian appointed to take care of his Person and Estate

Your Petitioner therefore humbly Prays your honors to admit him to make choice of a Guardian for the Purposes aforesaid

Mar: 9: 1790

And he will pray &c

[Signed] Henry ryland [sic]

Transcription ends.

March 9, 1790

This document seeks a guardian for Mary, granddaughter of Paul and Louisa Ryland. Note how Mary’s name is also Magdalena (Magdalina). Her father petitions for his daughter.

K 1790

Petition

Christian Kemere for

Guardian

Mar. 9. 1790.

Present

James Diemer}

Daniel Ludwig}

John Otto &}

Mathias Richard}

Esquires Justices

The Court appoints

Samuel Jackson of Reading

Hatter Guardian of Magdalina [sic] Kemere

To the Honourable the Justices of the Orphans Court of the County of Berks

The Petition of Christian Kemere of Reading in behalf of his Daughter Magdalina Kemere

Humbly Sheweth

That Paul Ryland the Grandfather of the said Magdalina Kemere lately died Intestate leaving a Considerable Real and Personal Estate and no Guardian hath been appointed for the said Minor Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays your Honors to appoint some proper person Guardian of the person and Estate of the said Minor

Reading, Mar. 9th 1790

And he will pray

Christian (X) Kemere

March 9, 1790

This document says that the property and goods could not be divided, so a valuation or appraisement was done, and everything was valued monetarily at £750.00 (see the twelve-man document on Jan. 2, 1790, above). The Table, below, shows how the property was divided monetarily or in money, not in land or goods. It’s a mystery to me why Rachel’s share is being divided like that. Also, where’s Andrew in the table? Yet both are said to be Paul’s heirs.

[Appraisement] or Valuation

1790

Sur Estate of

Paul Ryland dec’d

___etble March 9th 1790

Mar. 9. 1790

present

James Diemer}

Daniel Ludwig}

Mathias Richards}

Esquires Justices

The Court confirm the within Valuation to remain firm and Stable forever and adjust. the same to John Ryland Eldest Son of the within [a]n Intestate Paul Ryland on his giving Security for the payment of the respective Shares to the Parties within named- [Ho?] offering to the Court Lawrence Haare and Michael Moyer who are approved by the Court

Bonds to be given on Saturday

13 Mar. [crossed out:] /next/ Instant

To the Justices within Named

I do hereby certify that by Virtue of the within Writ to me directed I have taken with me Twelve honest and Lawfull [sic] men of my Bailiwick, and went to the Messuage [sic] or tenements and Tract of land and all and singular the Premisses within mentioned Paul Ryland the Intestate in the within Writ named died seiz’d and on their Oaths & Solomn [sic] Affirmation respectively finding finding [sic] that the same could not be parted & divided to and among the Parties as within mentioned, and therefore have Valued & appraised the same as by the within Writ I am commanded-  The residue of the Execution of the within Writ appears by a certain Inquisition hereunto annexed.

So Answers:

J’b Bower, Sheriff

At an Orphans Court held at Reading in and for the County of Berks the ninth Day of March Anno Domini 1790 Before James Diemer Daniel Ludwig and Mathias Richards Esquires Justices &c Distribution was then made [careted in:] /of the valuashon [sic] money/ of the Real Estate of Paul Ryland deceased as the same was Valued & appraised

 

by an Inquest at £ 750
Widow’s third part £ 250.
John Ryland Eldest. 2 Shares £100. after the Widow’s decease £50.
1/8 of his sister Rachael’s [sic] share 6 5 3 2 0
Peter Foulke & Rebecca his wife 50 25
1/8 of Rachael’s Share 6 5 3 2 0
William Ryland 50 25
1/8 of Rachael’s 6 5 3 2 0
James Ryland 50 25
1/8 of Rachael’s 6 5 3 2 0
Mary Ryland 50 25
1/8 of Rachael’s 6 5 3 2 0
Mary Kemere 50 25
1/8 of Rachael’s 6 5 3 2 0
Henry Ryland 50 0 25
1/8 of Rachael’s share 6 5 3 2 0

 

Where’s Andrew in the table? His absence is a mystery because he lived long after his father and mother died. Is it a clerk’s oversight? Also, why is Rachael’s share being divided up by eighths? Did she die by this date?

And doesn’t Andrew’s absence open the door to Sylvester being part of this family? After all, he could have been omitted too in a private deal not to share the inheritance except behind the scenes. (Maybe John made a similar deal with Andrew.)

Andrew’s absence does not open the door to Sylvester. Just the opposite. First, an absence of a name is an argument from silence (what a text does not say). Second, if it was so easy to make private deals, then there was no need to name Andrew in the other documents. But instead he appears everywhere. Sylvester could have been named as well in the other documents and then excluded from this table. Third, the fact that Andrew appears in the other documents, but not Sylvester, means Sylvester is not a child of Paul.

And thus Andrew’s omission from that table does not open the door to Sylvester.

See the very end of this post for more arguments against Sylvester.

March 29, 1790

www.co.berks.us/rwills, go to genealogy.

Will Book 3 p. 132 at the Berks County Court

This document shows how Louisa the widow and William one of her sons paid money out. The accountants and commissioners took their fees. So Louisa and William carried out their duty as administrators. Louisa signs her name here.

R

Administration Accompt

Sur Estate of

Paul Ryland Deceased

Exh’d March 29th 1790

The Accompt of Luissa [sic] Ryland & William Ryland, Administrators of all and singular the Goods and Chattels, Rights and Credits which were of Paul Ryland, late of C[umru] Township Berks County Yeoman deceased

 

 

The said Accomptants charges [sic] themselves with all and singular the Goods & Chattles,Rights & Credits which were of the said deceased, as per Inventory exhibited in the Register’s Office £ 208 0 11
To an Increase by public Sale 83 6 8
To Cash in Paper Money of the last Emission 3 1 92
£ 294 9 42

 

March 24th 1790

[signed] p’r William Ryland

[signed] p’r Louisa Ryland

 

[horizontal text on left side:] This was paid by Louisa Ryland
[in Far left column:] The said Accomptants charges [sic] themselves with all and singular the Goods & Chattles, Rights & Credits which were of the said deceased, as per Inventory exhibited in the Register’s Office £208 0 11
13 6 8
3 1 92
By Cash paid Henry Christ, Esq. for Letters of Adm’s 1 2 6
By dt’o Ludwig Katzmeyor as p’r Rec’t No 1 6 10
By dt’o  Thomas Dundas dt’o .. 2 14 1
By dt’o Thomas Dundas dt’o .. 3 7 6
By dt’o Elijah Barger dt’o .. 4 8 4
By dt’o David Rhein dt’o .. 5 8 4
By dt’o Jacob Stahl dt’o .. 6 3
By dt’o Conrad Fesig dt’o .. 7 7
By dt’o Michael Güker dt’o .. 8 1 7
By dt’o Peter Filbert dt’o .. 9 1 13 7
By dt’o Samuel Jackson dt’o .. 10 4 6
By dt’o Johnson, Barton & Jungman dt’o .. 11 6 9
By dt’o Christian Stoltzfuss dt’o .. 12 33 6
By dt’o John Sharman dt’o .. 13 6
By dt’o James Jackson dt’o .. 14 10 3
[horizontal text on left side:] This was paid by W’m Ryland
By dt’o David Moyer dt’o .. 15 1 8
By dt’o Frederick Fisher dt’o .. 16 4 8
By dt’o Michael Katzmeyor dt’o .. 17 2 6
By dt’o William Hus dt’o .. 18 1 8 9
By dt’o George Meyer dt’o .. 19 1 10
By dt’o Abraham Rieser dt’o .. 20 7 6
By dt’o Jacob Feather dt’o .. 21 7 6
By dt’o Henry Mat[hews] dt’o .. 22 2 2 1
By dt’o George Krick dt’o .. 23 5
By dt’o John Spyker for drawing  this Acco’t 7 6
By dt’o John Christ, Esq. for filing this Accompt, fair Copy & Seal 7 6
£ 47 19 11
By Commission on rec. £270:5.22 @ 5 p’r c’t £13.10.3
By …. dt’o   on paying £67:19.11 @ dt’o .. 2. 8 15 18 3
By a balance in specis remaining in Acco’ts hands 203 5 3
By Paper Money of the last Emission in dt’o 3 1 92
By a Certificate in dt’o 23 12 2
By a Pennsylvania Assembly bill in dt’o 12
These same totals also appear in far left column: £ 294 9 42

 

May 10, 1790 and June 7, 1790

This is Louisa Ryland’s will, signed by her own hand on May 10, 1790. It was proved on June 7, 1790, citing her as deceased. That means she died between Mary 10 and June 7, 1790. Louisa gives her personal belongings to her daughter Rebecca (wife of Peter Foulke) and to her daughter Mary. If Mary dies without issue (offspring), then the belongings go to Rebecca. It is understandable why Louisa’s sons are not named, for her belongings and personal effects were meager. But where’s Rachel in the will? It should be noted that John Ryland, eldest son of Paul and Louisa, sold the property on March 27, 1790 (see post on John Ryland). The will nominates Louisa’s “well beloved friend” Samuel Jackson as executor. Families often appointed a “good friend” or “beloved friend” as an executor. This tells the probate judge that a latecomer and manipulator will not rob the estate.

R

Will

of Lewisa [sic] Ryland Decea.

proved June 7th 1790

Ext’r App’d and Letters

Testam’y granted

Will of Lewisa Ryland

In the name of God Amen

I Lewisa Ryland Widow and relict of Paul Ryland Deceased being sick and weak in body, but of sound and well Disposing mind and Memory thanks be to god [sic] therefor, [sic] and considering the uncertainty of this Mortal Life

Do make and Publish this my last will and Testament in maner [sic] and form following

First I commit my soul to God who gave it and my body to be Decently buried

Secondly my will is that all my just Debts and Funeral Expenses be paid out of my Estate

Thirdly I give Devise and bequeath unto my beloved Daughters Rebecca the wife of Peter Foulk and Mary Ryland all my Beds & Beding [sic] and all my wearing Apperal [sic] and all my Household furniture of whatsoever name or nature with all my money in hand and Due to me, to them and their heirs, [careted in]: /share & share alike/ but if my Daughter Mary Should Die leaving no Issue of her Body, then my will is that Rebecca the wife of Peter Foulk shall have the whole

And I do hereby nominate Constitute and appoint my well beloved friend Samuel Jackson Excutor [sic] of this my last will and Testament hereby Revoking all other and former will and wills by me made Ratifying and Confirming this to be my last will and Testament

In Witness whereof I the said Lewisa Ryland the Testator have to this my last Will and Testament set my hand and seal this tenth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Ninty [sic]

Note the above interlining share & share alike was done

before signing

[signed] Louisa Ryland

Signed sealed published and declared by Lewisa Ryland the above named testator as and for her last Will and Testament in the presence of us who at her request in her presence and in the presence of each other have Subscribed our names as witnesses thereto

Benj’a Parks

Wm Green

Reading in the County of Berks June 7th A. Dom 1790

There personally appeared Benjamin Parks and William Green the Subscribing Witnesses to the within Written Will and upon their Solonm [sic] Affirmation’s according to Law did Severally declare and say that they were present together and did see and hear Lewisa Ryland the Testatrix therein named sign seal pronounce publish and declare the same within writing to be her last Will and Testament and that at the Time of the doing thereof she the said Testatrix was of sound, mind, memory and understanding to the best of their knowledge, and as they Verily believe, And further that the names Benjamin Parks and William Green thereto Subscribed are of the proper hands writing of the said Affirmants respectively by them thereto subscribed as Witnesses in the presence of each other, at the request and in the presence of the said Testatrix–

Coram me

John Christ Register

Transcription ends.

June 21-23, 1790

Here is the inventory of Louisa Ryland’s estate. She now has only personal belongings, except four ewes and one lamb. (Recall that John her eldest son sold the property on March, 27, 1790.) She also employed an apprentice girl.

R

Inventory

Sur Estate of

Lewisa [sic] Ryland, Decea

Ext’d June 23rd 1790

Inventory & Appraisement of the goods and Chattles rights and Credits of Lewisa [sic] Ryland late of the Borough of Reading Descd [sic], Appraised by us the Subscribers this 21st Day of June 1790

 

£ S D
Money in hand 25 8 9
Wearing Apperal [sic] 4 15 0
three Beds & Bed Clothes 7 12 0
2 table Cloths 2 towels & a wallet 0 7 6
1 table cloth & a towel 0 3 0
3 Shifts 0 10 0
3 lbs flax 0 3 0
A Chest 0 12 6
one trunk 0 3 9
T__ Linen 5 yds @ 15 d 0 6 3
A tin plate Stove 3 0 0
A Big wheel 0 2 6
2 little wheels 0 10 0
4 ¾ lb wool @ 12 d 0 3 9
1 Bushel Salt 0 1 8
1 Bushel flax seed 0 2 6
A womans [sic] Saddle & Bridle 0 7 6
Tea Kettle Brass D’o, and tin Bucket 1 0 0
2 Iron pots, a Skillet, a frying pan, and Grid Iron 0 10 0
8 Earthen potts [sic], a Skimer [sic] & ladle, shovel & tongs 0 3 0
A flax Hatchet 0 7 6
A wooden Clock 0 2 6
1 ½ yd Stripe 0 3 9
Knives & forks, tea cups & saucers, 2 tea pots 3 puter [sic] plates a puter Bason [sic] & puter Dish & other Small matters 1 2 6
5 Chairs 0 8 6
22 y’ds flax linen 2 4 0
out Standing [sic] Debts 45 0 0
A table 0 0 6
turn over £ 95 12 11
£ S D
the Amount brought over £ 95 12 11
A brass Kettle, an Iron pott [sic], and Churn a Cradle and a small Beer Stander 1 10 0
the unexpired time of an Apprentice girl 0 10 0
£ 97 12 11
4 Ewes and 1 lamb 1 0 0
£ 98 12 11

Peter Brecht} Appraisers

John Diesler}

1790 June 23rd

There appeared the above named Peter Brecht and John Diesler and upon their solemn Affirmations according [careted in:] /to Law/ did respectively Declare and say that they have Valued and Appraised the Goods &c mentioned in the foregoing Inventory to the best of their Skill and Judgment

Affirmed at Reading the Day and Year above said

Peter Brecht

John Diesler

Coram me

John Christ Register

Transcription ends.

March 7, 1793

This is how Samuel Jackson handled Louisa’s meager estate, by means of accountants. But it seems her son William Ryland got involved a little, by permission of the referees.

R

Administration Acc’t

Sur Estate of

Louisa Ryland, Widow Dec’d

Exhibited 7th March 1793

The Accompt [sic] of Samuel Jackson Executor of the last Will and Testament of Louisa Ryland, late of the Borough of Reading in the County of Berks, Widow, deceased.

The said Accomptant [sic] charges himself with all and Singular the Goods and Chattels, Rights and Credits which were of the said deceased, as per Inventory exhibited into the Register’s Office, at Reading

To Rent received by said Accomptant since his exhibiting the Inventory

£98.12.11

10.0.0

________________

£ 108.12.11

________________

To a balance remaining in the Accomptant’s Hands …

67 14 8½

March 7th 1793.  Errors excepted.

p’r Saml Jackson

The said Accomptant prays to be allowed the following disbursements made for the Use of Estate of the said deceased, as follows, viz to:

 

By Cash paid John Christ Esquire for Letters Test’y £ 1 5 9
1790 June 23 By dt’o Peter Brecht as per Receipts 3 9
dt’o .. By dt’o John Disler dt’o 3 9
dt’o 30 By dt’o Elijah Pearson .. dt’o 2 13 6
Aug 4th By dt’o  Abraham Levan jun’r dt’o 3
Oct’r 7 By dt’o  Christian Cammerer dt’o 3
1791 Apl 6 By dt’o  Hannah Pearson dt’o 15
June 23 By dt’o  James Ryland dt’o 10 12 3
dt’o 24 By dt’o  Peter Filbert dt’o 3 6 5
Aug 25th By dt’o  Thomas Dundas dt’o 13 6
1793 Feb’y 6 By dt’o  Philip Miller dt’o 11 11
By dt’o  Barton & Jungman for Advertisements 5
By dt’o John Spyker for drawing this Accompt 3 9
By dt’o Jacob Bower, Esq’r for filing this Acco’t &c 17 6
21 19 2
By a Debt due from the Estate of said deceased to the Accomptant 10
By William Ryland’s Accompt against the Estate of the deceased as allowed by Referees and which hath been deducted from the Debt due from him to the Estate and charged in the Inventory 12 11 6 ¼
By Commissions in receiving

£ 95.11.4 ¾

By dt’o on paying @ 5 p’r Cent £ 21.19.2 5 17 6 ½
By a balance remaining in the

Accomptant’s Hands

67 14 8 ½
£ 108 12 11

Transcription ends.

SUMMARY OF PAUL AND LOUISA’S LIFE

Hey Rylands, your roots go deep in American soil!

  • His name was Paulus Rÿlandt. When we get to William Ryland Sr. (Paul’s grandson) the name settles down to Ryland. Paul had to go through these spelling variations: Reiland, Reyland, Rylands, Ryley, Reiley or Riley, in Berks County, depending on which clerk wrote his name. He stayed with the name Ryland.
  • Paul was born about 1730 (very approximate) and died in early 1789. His probate was initiated on March 2, 1789, so I assume he died in February 1789, but it could be an earlier month. In my experience, though, it didn’t take all that long to get probate rolling, except for one instance on the Wilbourn side, but that looks like an exception.
  • Paul Ryland came over to America on August 11, 1750 on the ship Patience, which left Cowes, England, on the Isle of Wight, to go to Rotterdam, Holland. German immigrants flocked to Rotterdam to board ships for America.
  • Here is a write-up on Cowes:
    http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=Cowes+England&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&resnum=1&ct=title
  • He signed his name, and the handwritten scribble of his signature survives.
  • The Patience landed in Port of Phildelphia, where Paul disembarked, swore an oath to the King George II of England in a nearby courthouse, and was patriated.
  • He made his way to Cumru Township, Berks County, Here’s a link to the modern town: http://www.cumrutownship.com/
  • At sometime after his arrival  he married Louisa between May and August in 1754, but we don’t yet know her maiden name. No one has been able to find their marriage license, but not finding these old documents is par for course.
  • We can be sure Paul’s English was very basic. German was spoken in their household. He and (probably) Louisa were, after all, original “Pennsylvania Dutch,” and they were not highly educated at school, so he picked up English wherever he could. But they did own five books, and Louisa signs her will, and Paul signed a document or two. So they could read and write.
  • Deeds are about land transactions, buying and selling it. Paul Ryland acquires property on September 4, 1765, Berks County, East Side Applications, early known as Robeson; 60 acres; then he gets property in Cumru Township, Berks County, on these dates: February 23, 1771 (first three tracts, on which Paul and Louisa built their home); November 2, 1779 (fourth tract); October 10, 1787 (fifth tract). Paul and Louisa lived on their land for a long time. John sells the property in Cumru Township as a collective: (1) ninety-one acres and seven perches; (2) five acres and one hundred and eighteen perches; (3) three acres and thirty-five perches; (4) ten acres; (5) thirty-five acres.
  • The first two tracts border Tulpehocken Creek, which looks like a river in this link: http://www.flyfishpa.net/Streams/Tully.htm
  • They were prosperous farmers; ninety percent of Americans were farmers at this time in American history.
  • The Rylands owned no slaves.
  • Paul took a new oath of allegiance, in 1777.
  • Paul and Louisa contributed their fair share to the Revolutionary War. He was an aging family man, so he did not fight, but he helped raise supplies for the troops. For this contribution and his oath of allegiance, Paul (and Louisa) was approved by DAR (A206879).

What about Paul and Louisa’s family?

  • They had ten kids: John the first born (our direct line), Elizabeth, Rebecca, Sarah, James, William, Andrew, Mary, Rachel, and Henry.
  • John and James served in the Revolutionary War. Rebecca’s husband Peter Foulke (or Foulk) fought in the War of 1812.
  • Mary, Rachel, and Henry had not reached 21 when Paul died, so their dad died early on them. The Orphans Court appointed guardians during the probate proceedings, except for Rachel whose petition was not written up or did not survive.
  • Paul and Louisa’s daughter Sarah predeceased her father, how sad! She had married Christian Kemere (or Kemery) and had one daughter named Mary Magdalena, age unknown when Paul died, but she must have been really young. So Paul and Louisa had a grandchild.
  • Paul died intestate (no will), before March 2, 1789.
  • The court appointed Louisa and William to administer the estate, but John seems to have taken over. His name appears in a lot of Paul’s probate documents. John was the first born, after all, so he had special legal status back then. But Louisa and William oversaw the Inventory and Appraisement; at least they signed off on it. They took care of the account payments, so they were not passive.
  • Louisa wrote up her will on May 10, 1790. She signed it, and we can read her scribble of a signature. She appointed Samuel Jackson, beloved friend of the family, to be her administrator. The court “proved” it on June 7, 1790, citing her as deceased. So she died between May 10 and June 7, 1790. Remember, Paul died before March 2, 1789. This is one more hint of evidence that it doesn’t take long to get probate rolling, so we can assume Paul died in February.
  • So little Mary Magdalena lost her mother Sarah, and her grandparents Paul and Louisa in a short time of each other. Think of how Paul and Louisa’s kids felt, especially the younger ones!
  • John sold Paul’s property all together on March 27, 1790. The lengthy deed – the really, really lengthy deed – says John was securing or was about to secure the paying of the eight living heirs (minus Sarah, deceased).
  • A little over two months later, Louisa dies.
  • Speculation, musings, and thinking out loud: Did John sell the property because he could see his mother would die soon? Couldn’t he have waited? He sold it to Michael Meyer. Did he require her to leave the house she had lived in, all those years? Or did he too allow her to live out her last days there, seeing that she was “weak in body” (as wills say)? Did she leave to live with Rebecca her daughter and Peter her son-in-law? Did Mary follow her and take care of her? These are questions, not categorical declarations.
  • Better still is this question: Did Louisa approve of the sale because she realized her health was failing fast and knew her offspring would get the proceeds? My answer: yes.
  • Louisa’s will and Inventory and Appraisement survive. She left meager belongings.
  • Other Ryland researchers say that Mary died in the early 1790s, unmarried. If true, it looks like Rebecca got their mother’s belongings.
  • It’s understandable that her sons would not be named in her will, for she had mostly women’s belongings and kitchen utensils.
  • Puzzle, though: where’s Rachel in Louisa’s will and other documents (see “More about her” near the top of this post)? If anyone out there can solve it, email us.
  • The first generation of Rylands closes out their life by June 7, 1790. Louisa’s final account is settled by the administrator on March 7, 1793.
  • It is up the second generation to carry on, and for us he is John Ryland, next.

ADDENDUM: SYLVESTER RYLAND

Is Sylvester the missing child of Paul? I have nothing against Sylvester. However, let’s number our points to show why he was not.

  1. I like circumstantial evidence. Once in a while we all have to depend on it in our family search.
  2. However, two court-sworn documents assert that at the time of Paul’s death he had only eight living children (Sarah had predeceased him and presumably Elizabeth died in infancy). The documents actually say “eight.”
  3. When court-sworn documents contradict wishful family history and circumstantial evidence, I have to choose the legal documents—any lineage society would too.
  4. There is a Bible record of births, cited in the list of children, above, and Bible records are a great primary source that is acceptable in all lineage societies as a standard of proof. Sylvester was born in 1763, which cuts right across the birth order, but he is nowhere to be found in the Bible record. It seems hard to believe the family would skip over him.
  5. One piece of circumstantial evidence is that Sylvester owned land in Bedford County near John and James. Yet Sylvester also owned property near the Maryland Rylands in Maryland—a separate family line. So which is the more dispositive evidence? PA Sylvester owning land among the MD Rylands, or MD Sylvester owning land among the PA Rylands? They’re both equally compelling–a one-to-one tie–so these facts prove nothing, other than, perhaps, the two Ryland lines knew each other.
  6. One researcher speculates that upon hearing that Paul died back in Berks County, John made a private deal with Sylvester not to split the inheritance legally, but just give him some cash or something. Then John went back to Berks to arrange things as the eldest son and heir-at-law, while Sylvester remained in Bedford County and kept quiet. This is where John reported to the court that there were only eight living children when Paul died.
  7. Reply: When one’s parent first dies, it puts life in a different perspective. At a time of grief it is psychologically difficult for normal people—unless one were a criminal or extremely greedy—to withhold from the court the existence of a living sibling in a partition of the property. This is serious and needless breach of the law. Why not just split the inheritance legally? It wasn’t worth a 50,000 pounds, after all. One gets the impression that piling on complications and contortions to get Sylvester accepted into Paul’s family is going down the wrong path.
  8. It could be countered that a psychological reading of a grieving son who lived over 225 years ago is speculative. The fact is–Andrew does not appear in an account table (see above), so maybe John made a special and private arrangement with him. John could have done the same thing with Sylvester.
  9. Reply: the psychological reading was an incidental point. It’s still a serious breach of the law to withhold a sibling and then allow the clerk to write “eight.” The fact is–whenever a list of Paul’s children appears in his probate, Andrew always appears; Sylvester never does. Never. If a deal with Andrew was so easy at the end of the probate during the distribution of funds, why not mention Sylvester from the beginning?
  10. So where does Sylvester come from? He is surely from the Maryland Rylands (a separate, unrelated line), and here is his probable father or grandfather (slightly edited):

Maryland John Ryland

Liber 25, folio 336
4 June 1747
RYLAND, JOHN, Sr., Cecil Co., planter.
To son John Ryland, Strawberry Bank & any other lands in Kent Co.
To younger son Sylvester Ryland, Mulberry Mold & Mulberry Dock, where I live in Cecil Co., but in default of issue, to my 2 daughters, Rebecca & Elizabeth Ryland [both under 16].
The residue of my personal estate to be divided equally among my 4 children.
To wife & executrix [not named], a desk & a side saddle above her 1/3.
Wit: Edwd. John White, Charles Bowen, Ann Bowen.
11 April 1748, sworn to by both Bowens in presence of John Ryland, eldest son.

http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/stagser/s500/s538/html/s538-25.html

11. That Maryland document is court-sworn, and Kent Count is only one county away from the PA border, while Cecil County borders PA (Cecil and Kent border each other, north and south).

12. It is a well-known fact that fathers often named their children after themselves or the children’s grandfather, which is circumstantial evidence, but at least this evidence offers a probable explanation for Sylvester’s true family.

Conclusion

When a court-sworn document or a primary Bible record turns up that says Sylvester is part of Paul’s family, then and only then will we gladly reinstate Sylvester into that family. For now, however, Sylvester is surely a Maryland Ryland.

Go now to the John Ryland post.

SOURCES

  • “The Rylands,” August 15, 1935, a family booklet periodical
  • Probate Records in Berks Co., PA: (1) Letters of Administration for Paul Ryland, 1789, and (2) Will of Louisa Ryland, 1790
  • Land and Property Records: Indenture, 1790, vol. 15, pp., 8-12; Bedford Co., PA
  • Orphans Court Minute and Probate Records, 1772-1814, p. 49
  • Berks Co., PA Marriages: 1730-1800, vol. 1
  • D. Rupp, Thirty Thousand Names, 1927
  • John Ryland
  • Phyllis J. Hughes
  • Samuel W. Aylesworth
  • Quinton and Fran Barker, of Washington, DC, also provided some original source documents.
  • Louis Fackler, Baird Book, Chapter 4.

 

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