Rufus means “red,” which indicates his complexion. This nickname distinguishes him from his father William I, the Conqueror. He ruled from 1087-1100. The most widely known fact about Rufus is his death under suspicious circumstances, while he was hunting. Accident or murder?
This “illegitimate son,” the duke of Normandy, forever changed the course of English history. Several genealogical tables are included.
He was the father of William the Conqueror and ruled over Normandy from 1027 to 1035.
He was the grandfather of William the Conqueror and as duke ruled Normandy from 996 to 1026. Richard’s son Richard III (the Conqueror’s uncle) is included in this post since he ruled only from 1026 to 1027, about twelve months.
He was William the Conqueror’s great-grandfather and ruled over a developing Normandy or Northmen for fifty-one years, from 945 to his death in 996.
Born in latter half of the 800s and died around 928, he was the Viking leader who became the count of Rouen, capital of Normandy. Some say he was the duke of the Normans. He was the first in the House of Normandy and the great-great-great-grandfather of William the Conqueror.
Philip, the seventh Capetian, born in 1165, reigned from 1179 to 1223 and was nicknamed Augustus (why?). On a personal note, he had a strange wedding ceremony with the young princess Ingeborg of Denmark (some say it was witchcraft). But politically, he expanded his royal domain to the detriment of the English Plantagenets.
For those who care about the triangle of Louis – Eleanor of Aquitaine – Henry of Anjou (later King Henry II of England), this post is for those readers.
He is the fifth Capetian of that dynasty, ruling from 1108 to 1137. He had the help of Abbot Suger, a superior administrator and the famous architect of the basilica of St. Denis.
The fourth Capetian king of France, he was born in 1052 or 1053 and began his reign as a minor in 1059 (or 1060) until his death in 1108. He came of age when the William the Conqueror was strong, so Philip’s reign was overshadowed.