Glossary of Medieval Terms: A to J

This is a handy, quick reference to terms and concepts of class structure, offices, units of land measurements, taxes, and so on. Great for students and researchers. Good for research in earliest colonial America, too, since many of the terms survived to then.

This post covers the terms in alphabetical order from A to J.

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

Let’s get started.

Don’t forget to use the ctrl-f function to find your key word quickly.

When William, duke of Normandy, conquered England in 1066 and became king of England, he brought many of the terms over to England. They evolved over time and had nuanced differences between England and France, but often they parallel each other exactly or almost exactly. In other cases England evolved uniquely, like the thegn or hide.

In this post an effort was made to keep track of the similarities and differences or to keep the two nations separate, if they developed along unique lines.

This post is mostly about lay-society or the temporal realm, with very few terms in the spiritual or religious realm.

A

Adoubement (dubbing): a multi-purpose ceremony among the northern European aristocracy; it involved giving a horse, arms, and other paraphernalia by one man to another. It was used to inaugurate a relationship of vassalage from a lesser lord to a greater one; a lord did this when he took a warrior into household service; it was rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. In other words, at first it was not reserved exclusively for dubbing a knight, for that came later.

Affinity: a group of men, usually including knights who fought, who followed a lord.

Affranchissement: in France it was an act granting freedom to an unfree person or privileges to a community; it is synonymous with manumission or emancipation. The legal assimilation of the freedman to the free population was partial under the laws of the state.

Aides in France were the feudal obligation of a vassal to render “aid and counsel” to his lord; he could do this by fighting or by money It could be payment in lieu of military obligations (see scutage, below, in England).

Alleu / Allod: in France it was a freehold of land that the possessor owned outright.

Amercement: in England, though it is a French word, it was a pecuniary punishment or penalty imposed at the “mercy” of the king or his justices for misdemeanors, defaults, breach of regulations and other minor offences. The offender was in “mercy”  and was amerced; he had to pay an amercement.

Apanage or apanage: (from apaner, to endow with a means of subsistence) in France is to grant an annuity or land or later an office to the younger children of royalty to compensate them for not receiving the throne to preserve the peace and love in the family. In other words, it was paying off the kings’ kids who did not inherit the crown. It applied in England as well.

Annuity: It was a grant of an annual payment for life or for a number of years, made by a lord to a retainer (see below; also see bastard feudalism).

Attainder: it was an act of Parliament that attaints (corruption of blood) a traitor or other offender that punishes him with the loss of his lands and civil rights, and his heirs were disinherited. It was often done without a trial.

Assizes were periodical sessions of Westminster judges in county courts; they were also ordinances or regulations of a court; or a procedure in a court to establish possession of land.

B

Bailli / Bailliage: in France it was a manorial officer known as a bailiff, who often acted as a manager of the estate. Employed by the French crown in the 12th century, he was a salaried judicial officer who inspected the work of the prévot. In 1204 Philip II (r. 1179-1223) of France got possession of Normandy, where the baillis had begun to be associated with a geographical area. It soon lost the character of an itinerant justice and became the administrator of a bailliage. In war he focused on military matters. In France he was salaried and could be recalled.

Ban / Banalité: (in Latin bannum or “authority”) in France it was the royal power to command and punish; after the 10th century the power devolved to castellans, great landlords and monasteries. Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) established the arrièreban (Latin retrobannum), which was service owned the king from the feudal tenants of his direct vassals; in the 1300s it served as a means to get taxes.

Barons: they were also large landowners. It comes from the Latin baro (barones in plural), which was probably derived from a German word; the basic, original sense was a “man distinct from a woman.” In the eleventh century it appeared with frequency in diplomatic documents in northern France to designate principal vassals (or “men”) of both princes and the castellans. After 1066 (conquest of England by William, duke of Normandy), a baron was a tenant-in-chief; he held his lands directly from the king. Gradually the class divided into two: the greater and lesser barons. In the late thirteenth century the greater barons received summonses to attend parliament. He had to consult them or else they might revolt. They compelled King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. In the 12th century in France, a baron could be applied to a duke, count or viscount, but the term shifted and was applied to those who had no title of dignity. Barony was treated as a specific title and as the baron’s domain on the model of “county” (the barony of Coucy).

Bastard feudalism: as a term it was invented by Charles Plummer. It was (supposedly) a degradation or debasement of feudalism (see below). In older feudalism, a lord gave a landed estate to a knight or other members of his retinue in exchange for fealty or loyalty, service that included fighting in a war. Land provided more stability. In the later Middle Ages, in contrast, feudalism changed to a “bastardized” version. The lord paid money or an annuity (see above) for a knight’s service. In effect this turned the knight into a “non-foreign mercenary,” a “hired gun” (to use a modern term). The go-between of the lord and his retinue was a retainer who signed an indenture, which was a contract that promised the retainer half of the benefit from the contract. The retainer recruited the knights or an armed retinue. The retinue was also indentured. Without land, however, loyalties could fluctuate. It resembled the patron-client relationship of Roman times. This later version of feudalism began under Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377) and continued under Henry V (r. 1413-22) and his son Henry VI (r. 1422-61, 1470-71).

Benefice: (beneficium in Latin), in ecclesiastical terms it was a position in the church with lands and an income attached, if the office-holder served in spiritual matters, such as saying Mass. In nonecclesiatical terms it was originally (under Charlemagne) a grant of land that kings made to their counts as long as the counts held office. Over the centuries the benefice system arose by which kings and churches could award their friends for service.

Benevolence: in England it was a tax levied without the permission of parliament.

Bond: see Recognizance.

Borough: in England it was originally a fortified town, and it came to mean a town holding a corporation of citizens and privileges conferred by royal charter. Markets and fairs were vital for economic growth. There were 66 boroughs in England in 1066; 350 by 1250, and 480 by 1300; the growth reflects economic prosperity.

Bovate: in England it was a measurement of land, one-eighth a curacate (see below)—notionally as much land that could be kept under the plow of one ox, also known as ox gang or oxgate of land.

Burgess: in England it was held land in a borough with special judicial privileges and obligations in running the borough.

Butler of France: (bouteiller or boutilier in French) it was a household officer occupied with supplying wine and revenues from wine from the king’s estates. In the 11th century the officeholder was recognized as one of the “great officers of the crown.” The family could be held from one generation to the next by seigneurial (lordly) families.

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

C

Canon: It was a clergyman living in a clerical house or within the cathedral precincts and ordering his life according to canons (rules) of the church. He set an example for the people.

Castellan / Châtelain: in France it was a governor or constable or commander of a castle. He could exercise authority over the surrounding town or village and garrison warrior bands. He constituted a mid-level authority between the dukes and counts and viscounts on one side, and the milites or knights on the other. England also developed a governor or commander of the castle.

Chamberlain: in France it was an officer of the royal bedchamber. In the 11th and 12th centuries officers distinguished between the bedchamber (cubiculum) and chamber camera or chambre). The chambrier (camerarius), head of the chamber, supervised the furnishing and upkeep of the palace and royal wardrobe, arranges the king’s gîtes (travel lodging). As the monarch evolved he lost the treasury and archives. His position got absorbed into the cubiculum, so he had charge over selling licenses to those who made or sold clothes. In England its evolution was parallel, but not exactly the same. He became an officer of the court overseeing the domestic sphere. He could function as a chief-of-staff.

Chamber: in England it was a financial office of the royal household; thus the chamber finance was a system of managing royal finances from the chamber rather than the Exchequer (see below).

Chambre des comtes: In France this office filled the need that the Exchequer did in England (see below). In the mid-12th century the crown turned the finances over to the Knights Templar, which maintained a banking system in Paris. In 1295, Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) took his treasure from the Templars and turned them over to the fortress in the Louvre (their final removal in 1307). In 1320 Philip V issued the important ordinance that gave official structure to the Chambre des comtes. The chamber was so important that it became virtually synonymous with the king’s council. In 1320 the chamber consisted of eleven clerks and eight masters of accounts, but grew fifty percent in the next two decades. In 1420 the chamber acquired two presidents, eight masters, twelve clerks / auditors, two “correctors,” notaries and ushers.

Chancellor: In England it was originally a chaplain and secretary of the king; he headed the chancery, the royal secretariat and oversaw the issue of writs, the instruments of the royal administrative and legal system. Usually he was a cleric, for they were the best educated. In France, the function was about the same. He was the most important of the king’s household officers, responsible for preparing, publishing and preserving royal documents. The term came from cancellarius or a scribe who sat behind a screen (cancelli) in Roman law courts. In France the officer was known as the Chancelier. He directed the chancellerie, recording the royal acts, such as the texts of the king, nominations, treaties and so on. In 1227 the Capetians found the office too powerful and left it vacant and suspended it. Its administrative position was shifted over to garde des sceaux (keeper of the seals) (see below). Then in 1314 Louis X of France (r. 1314-16) restored it. Bottom line, the chancery developed into the administrative or business side of government.

Chancery: in England it was the office of secretary responsible for the king’s charters, writs and letters and authenticating documents. Under Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury and chancellor from 1199 to 1205, the office expanded. France had a parallel development. It usually met at Westminster.

Chantry: it was an endowment of a will for the maintenance of priests to sing masses, usually for the soul of the person endowing it.

Chapel: in France it was originally the place where the capa or cloak of the Frankish royal St. Martin was kept. The clerics who served there were called capellani. The chapel was originally used to store important documents. This is why clerics were involved in writing and records.

Church courts: they were introduced after the Norman conquests, paralleling lay courts. Ecclesiastic courts covered offences like heresy, divorce. Sexual immorality, disputes over wills, and other cases of the soul. Usually held under bishop or archdeacon and sometimes even the pope.

Coloni: they were free men who had been tied to land by tax legislation in Charlemagne’s time.

Comes stabuli: (constable comes from these words) they oversaw transportation resources in Charlemagne’s time. (See constable, below).

Comites: (Latin plural of comes or “companion”), from which the word count is derived. In the Frankish kingdoms it was the chief representative of royal power and was appointed by the king. In the early Middle Ages, the position gave rise to counts, who often resided over semi-independent counties (supposedly) attached to the king by ties of vassalage. Comites served at the pleasure of the king, although they were members of the local aristocracy. They had bannum (authority) to command their subjects, collect polls and taxes, preside over royal courts, supervised mints and markets, assembled local levies for royal armies, and were responsible for law and order. In Germanic regions of the Frankish kingdom the comes was called grafio.

Commis: In France these were agents of the king for a certain duration. Salaried and revocable, they were more and more utilized to supplement officers of the court, becoming authoritative proprietors of their duties by the seventeenth century.

Common Pleas, Court of: It was a royal court at Westminster that oversaw statue and common law. It split from the court of the king’s bench in the 13th century and had its own rolls or records.

Commune: it consisted of a group of people joined together by an oath to sustain and support each other against a common threat or danger. They existed primarily in urban areas—not all of Medieval Europe lived in the country as peasants. They were often traders, craftsmen, merchants, and shopkeepers. The first and most successful commune was in Italy, but the idea soon took hold elsewhere. Communes made their own laws in response feudal control by a lord. The members joined together to resist him. If he pushed too hard, the communes would revolt, often successfully. The lord saw the prosperity of communes, so he often let them function as they pleased, so long as he got a cut of the money in rents and taxes.

Conseil: in France it relates to the word consilium. In English it can mean “counsel (advice) or council (deliberative body),” also having a close connection to “court.” In the 12th century it as a larger assembly called curia (“court”). Its business was primarily judicial or set policy for national interests, like a crusade. In the 14th century royal councilors sat on the king’s court. Curia regis means king’s court or council, both in France and England. Bottom line is that it advised the king and could often struggle with him.

Consistory: it was a gathering of the college of cardinals, and in England it was the bishop’s court, established by William the Conqueror.

Constable: (the Latin comes stabuli, literally “count or officer of the stable”) was the high officer of royal or noble household; the governor or castellan (see above) of a castle or fortified town; a Lord (High) Constable ensured the peace throughout the royal kingdom of England.

Constable of France: (French connétable) it came to signify the chief commander of the French royal army and was originally the “count of the stable” or comes stabili. This humble position grew in importance as the military became heavily armored.

Corvée: it was forced labor service; the word derived from late Latin corrogare “to requisition.” They differed from opera officialis that certain freemen had to perform for the state.

Councilor: Philip IV of France (r. 1285-1314), for example, relied on councilors, for it was useful to tell the people that he was not acting alone, as a tyrant, but he made the ultimate decisions. Some of the councilors, particularly those who ran the government, made fortunes. Enguerrand de Marigny, a leading minister, for an extreme example, raked in 15,000 livres per year.

County: in England it is an administrative division of land following from the Saxon shire and after 1066 (the Norman conquest), getting its name from the French comté or county (see below). In France very early, it was in the hands of the king, but soon fell under the local ruler called the count. In 950 France was divided into 174 administrative counties or pagi, but this disintegrated between 980-1030. Now ensued a struggle from 1025 to 1125 between rising castellans and counts, and also between neighboring counts in the region. In the 12th century there were still about 100 dominions called “county” (Old French conté) in the kingdom, but federal dominions where the castellanies and baronies, whose lords had been persuaded to hold them as fiefs from the count, were held together by new feudo-vassalic bonds. In other words, the land and power were fought over and news feudal bonds developed.

Coutume: in France it meant customary levies or taxes due and road work and fines and services by custom, not by legislation every time the need arose. This tax could be indiscriminant. These “official rights” were abolished by revolutionary decrees of 4 Aug 1789.

Curacate: (from caruca, a plow): in England it was a measurement of land, notionally as much land as could be kept under the plow in one year by a plow team of eight oxen; the amount of land described in different parts of the country varied from 60 to 120 acres.

Custodian: in England he signed a contract and was responsible to collect the revenues in a shire. Unlike a sheriff, he accounted for all the revenues he collected, while the sheriff could collect more than his fixed contract, for his own profit (see farm and sheriff, below).

Currency: see Money

For the corresponding post, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: A to J.

D

Disseisin: it was an act depriving a person of the seisin lands, rents or other hereditaments, as  in depriving him of the right of ingress and egress.

Duke: Dux (Latin) or duke (English) or duc (French); the title appears all the way back to the Merovingians. It literally means “leader,” and indicated a high military commander. In the seventh century they began to exercise civil functions. He was a sovereign or vassal prince ruling a duchy or dukedom or several groupings of counties in France.

Demesne is a portion of manorial land kept by a lord for his own use and not for a tenant. The peasants were supposed to work the lord’s land and their own. On the royal level it was called the Royal Demesne or the Crown lands. IN France this was called the “domaine royal.”

Diocese: it is an area of jurisdiction of an individual bishop. Some dioceses were large, like that of Lincoln.

Dubbing: See adoubement, above

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

E

Earl: (the Scandinavian jarl is the source of the word earl). Both jarl and eorl meant “a man of noble birth and / or conduct.” Under the Anglo-Scandinavian kings of the 10th and 11th centuries it was a hereditary title across the northern world. “Earl” in England replaced the ancient English title of Ealdorman in the 1020s. Like the ealdorman  the earl was equivalent to the continental title of duke. Under the Normans the English earl was demoted to the status of a French count; a female “earl” is a countess. Now the earl sits below a marquess or marquis (see below) and above a viscount.

Enfeoffment to use: it was a trust in which land was held by trustees on behalf of its owner, often to escape the legal wardship (see below).

Enquêteur: (cf. English inquest), beginning c. 1247 in France, the crown periodically commissioned a small group of special investigators and judgers, no more than twenty, to uncover abuses of power, malfeasance, and irregularities committed by public officials.

Escheat in England under feudal law was the reversion of a fief (an estate granted conditionally to a vassal) to the feudal lord; if the vassal died without an heir or became an outlaw.

Estates-General: this governing body rose in significance, which first met at Notre Dame at Paris in 1302 to support the king against the papacy. It was an assembly of delegates of nobles, and clergy and representatives from a town and at least partly represented the nation. It met in 1302 and 1303 over Boniface VIII, in 1308 about the Templars and in 1314 over the subsidies for Flanders. It convened only when the king summoned it.

Eyre: in England it was a periodic visit to a shire by the king’s justices.

Essoin: it was an excuse offered by or on behalf of one summoned to court to perform suit or answer to an action.

Exchequer, Court of: was (and is) the financial office in England, which began to take shape under Norman Henry I (r. 1100-35) of England. It was responsible for collecting revenues for the monarchy and hearing cases about them. It started after the Norman conquest as a financial committee of the king’s court, but was independent by about 1110. Money was guarded under the Lower Exchequer, while the Upper Exchequer sat around a table covered with a giant checkered cloth called the exchequer (a form of abacus or calculator). It checked the return of the sheriffs (see their duties, below). The sums were recorded by notched wooden tallies and accounts logged on the great parchment roll of the Exchequer. It was housed at Westminster. See Chambre des comtes for the French version, above.

F

Familiaris: (plural familiares) he was an intimate or member of the familia or household of the king or other great person; it could be synonymous with close friends, counselors, aids and assistants.

Farm: (or ferm from Saxon feorme or food-rent). It was a fixed sum or rent, usually annual. The sheriff’s farm was the fixed sum payable annually by the sheriff for all the regular revenues from the shire; the sheriff farmed the revenues, contracting in advance to pay a fixed amount. He got his profit from whatever he could collect above this sum. (See sheriff, below, and custodian, above.)

Fealty: in both France (originally) and England it was an oath of fidelity, sometimes confused with homage, since both were performed together; However fealty could be sworn to one who had no land. Fealty to the Crown superseded all other obligations.

Feudalism: (French is féodalité) it was a term coined in the 17th century and was intended to describe the practices and institutions associated with the word fief (feudum in Latin). As the breakdown of the western Roman empire occurred, local lords arose and tried to keep peace and order. They did this by contracts, to protect the weak from the strong, but mainly to impose the strong’s policies on the weak. Counts (comes singular and comites in plural, and see above) used these contracts to enforce their power. Castles were built, however, which could undermine their authority, unless they took them over. A lesser noble took oaths to follow the contract in return for fiefs. Great ceremonies evolved, like kneeling and lowering the head and eyes and swearing loyalty and giving homage, often in church, presumably to bind the soul in the sight of God. The underling in the contract was called a vassal (see below).

Fief: it is derived from the Latin word feudum or feodum, it was an estate granted by its lord to a vassal on condition of the vassal’s homage and service. It was revenue-producing property granted to a vassal (see below) in exchange for military service or a payment of money. In England and France it was normally inheritable.

Fiefholding: it was a new institution that emerged in the 11th century, which as a personal relationship between two men of knightly or noble status. One became the other’s “man” (homo in Latin), swearing allegiance in an act of homage. William the Conqueror (r. 1066-8 ) divided all England into fiefs and granted them to the barons, who in turn had men hold fiefs from the barons, in a pyramid structure (of sorts). The king held ultimate authority and reserved the right to do with the fief what he desired. However, he had to be careful because the barons could revolt, as they did in King John’s time.

Fiefrente: or money fiefs (in Latin feudum de bursa) in France, were created when a lord granted a lump sum of money or revenues instead of land in exchange for fealty, homage and military service. Fiefrentes tended not to be inheritable.

Fine: in the 11th century England it was not a monetary penalty, but a sum of money which an applicant to the Crown agreed to pay for having some grant, concession or privilege (see privilege, below). Its meaning comes close to paying to avoid the king’s displeasure.

Fisc: it was a term applied to a prince’s personal landed estates, in Carolingian times; it was used by historians to distinguish princely estates from the demesne estates of lords.

Fouage: in France it was a tax on the hearth (household) in Languedoc, levied in years 1364-80. There the towns of paid royal taxes as a lump sum on the basis of households and raised through municipal taille (see below, under tallage) of their own choosing. In northern France the fouage was linked to household and was reckoned at three francs, though actual payments ranged from per household ranged from one to nine francs.

Franchise: it was a right of quasi-regal jurisdiction, granted by the sovereign to a person, such as a lord or to a body of people, such as a monastery or a town. The concept and reality developed both in France and England (see affranchissement, above).

Frankalmoign: (free alms) in England it was a tenure of lands or tenements granted to those who had devoted themselves to the service of God. The service by the grantee was payer, particularly for the souls of the grantor and his kin.

G

Garde des sceaux: In France this was a minister who kept the seals that validated royal acts. It gradually replaced, little by little, the chancellor.

Grands féodaux (fief holder), Grands de France: A term designating great lords in France.

Great Seal was the king of England’s main seal used to authenticate important documents, such as royal charters, letters patents (temporary grants), and so on. It was first adopted by Edward the Confessor (r. 1042-1066).

Guild: it was an association of persons in the profession of mercantile (business and trade) or crafts; it maintained standards and formed the basis of the Medieval town.

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

H

Hide: it was an Anglo-Saxon term still used in parts of England and was a measurement of land about equivalent to the carucate (see above), but properly a unit of assessment (i.e. a tax).

Heir apparent: it was the declared heir to the throne, normally the king’s eldest son.

Heir presumptive: it was the presumed heir in the event of the king dying without an heir apparent.

Homage: it was “an act of handing over oneself to one’s lord and receiving lands and rights in return for service” (Stephen Church). It was a ceremony and oath by which the vassal acknowledged himself “the man” (homo) of a lord; the man undertook the obligations of fief-holding.

Honor: from Latin honor, it was a group of estates from which the tenants-in-chief of the Crown derived their prestige and status; a superior lordship on which inferior lordships were dependent.

Household, Royal: in France under Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) employed some 200 men at the start of the reign, and by the end it had 300. The number of lawyers increased, to serve as administrators and Philip’s advisers. Canon law was taught at Paris, while Roman law was emphasized at Orleans. It also employed all sorts of servants, like cooks food servers, stable workers, foresters, gardeners.

Hundred: it was a subdivision of an English shire, first created in the 10th century, and each hundred had its own court. It embraced several vills (see below).

I

Inns of Court: they were made up of four legal societies in London with exclusive right of admission to the English Bar. They originated in the 13th century and became schools of law where apprenticed lawyers learned from their masters as in a guild: Lincoln’s Inn, Gray’s Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple, named after the building where they met.

J

Justices of the peace: they were local magistrates selected by the Crown from the gentry and charged to keep the peace, introduced throughout England in 1360.

Justiciar: he was a chief judicial and political officer under the Normans and Plantagenet kings. He could act as regent in the king’s absence. He was second to the king and acts as his alter-ego in the Angevin (adjective of Anjou) period.

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

SUMMARY OF UPPER CLASS STRUCTURE

A very general three-part structure: those who pray or the clergy (oratores), those who fight (bellatores) or knights and nobles, and those who work (laboratores) or peasants

Now let’s analyze noble class structure in more detail.

King or monarch: the chief executive of the realm, God’s anointed deputy or representative on earth.

Prince or princess: son or daughter of the king, but in earlier times he could be a great lord. Even lesser nobles claimed the title, but in the 15th century it applied to those of royal blood.

Duke: he was originally the highest military leader; then it evolved so that he oversaw a duchy or dukedom. Now it is a title that usually indicates a close relation to the monarch, like a son or daughter. The female is called a duchess.

Marquis or Marquess: he originally oversaw borders or marches; then he oversaw multicounties or regions that bordered each other. The female title was marchioness.

Earl (count) or countess: the latter term was used for the lady; originally he oversaw a county.

Viscount: he was originally a vice-count of a count or earl.

Baron: he was a landholder that got his land from the king.

Knight: he was a military man, but over the centuries the knight evolved to become an administrator.

Esquire: He was an administrator ranked below and served a knight; over the centuries he became specialized in the law.

For the corresponding post from K-Z, click on Glossary of Medieval Terms: K to Z.

SOURCES

Matthias Becher, Charlemagne, trans. David S. Bachrach (New Haven: Yale UP, 1999, 2003). .

Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France (Continuum, 2007).

Russell Chamberlin, Charlemagne: Emperor of the Western World (London: Grafton Books, 1986).

Stephen Church, Henry III: A Simple and God-Fearing King, Penguin Books, (UK: Penguin Random House and Allen Lane, 2017).

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes, and Simon MacLean, the Carolingian World (Cambridge UP, 2011).

David Crouch, The Normans: The History of the Dynasty (Hambledon and London, 2002).

The Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, gen. ed. Norman Cantor, (Viking 1999).

W. Warren Hollister and Amanda Clark Frost, Henry I, Yale English Monarchs (Yale UP, 2001).

Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, eds. William B. Kebler and Grover A. Zinn (New York: Garland, 1995).

The Middle Ages: A Concise Encyclopedia, ed. by H. R. Lyon (Thames and Hudson, 1989).

Don Nardo, Lords, Ladies, Peasants and Knights: Class in the Middle Ages (Thomason Gale 2007).

The Plantagenet Encyclopedia: An Alphabetical Guide to 400 Years of English History, gen. ed. Elizabeth Hallam, (Crescent Books, 1996). The main source for this post.

A. J. Pollard, the War of the Roses, History in Perspective, 2nd ed. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).

W. L. Warren, Henry II (Berkeley: University of California P, 1973).

Patrick Weber, Les Rois de France (Librio, 2011).

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